Ap World History

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I. Popular sovereignty and political upheaval
A. Enlightened and revolutionary ideas
1. Popular sovereignty: relocating sovereignty in the people a. Traditionally monarchs claimed a "divine right" to rule b. The Enlightenment challenged this right, made the monarch responsible to the people c. John Locke's theory of contractual government: authority comes from the consent of the governed 2. Freedom and equality: important values of the Enlightenment d. Demands for freedom of worship and freedom of expression e. Demands for political and legal equality

(a) Condemned legal and social privileges of aristocrats
(b) Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract
f. Equality not extended to women, peasants, laborers, slaves, or people of color g. Ideals of Enlightenment were significant global influence B. The American Revolution

3. Tension between Britain and the North American colonies h. Legacy of Seven Years' War: British debt, North American tax burden i. Mounting colonial protest over taxes, trade policies, Parliamentary rule (a) Colonial boycott of British goods

(b) Attacks on British officials; Boston Tea Party, 1773
j. Political protest over representation in Parliament: Continental Congress, 1774 k. British troops and colonial militia skirmished at the village of Lexington, 1775 4. The Declaration of Independence, 4 July 1776

l. Thirteen united States of America severed ties with Britain m. Declaration inspired by Enlightenment and Locke's theory of government 5. The American Revolution, 1775-1781

n. British advantages: strong government, navy, army, plus loyalists in colonies o. American advantages: European allies, George Washington's leadership p. Weary of a costly conflict, British forces surrendered in 1781 6. Building an independent state: Constitutional Convention, 1787 q. Constitution guaranteed freedom of press, of speech, and of religion r. American republic based on principles of freedom, equality, popular sovereignty s. Full legal and political rights were granted only to men of property C. The French Revolution

7. Summoning the Estates General
t. Financial crisis: half of government revenue went to national debt u. King Louis XVI forced to summon Estates General to raise new taxes v. Many representatives wanted sweeping political and social reform w. First and Second Estates (nobles, clergy) tried to limit Third Estate (commoners) 8. The National Assembly formed by representative of Third Estate, 17 June 1789 x. Demanded a written constitution and popular sovereignty y. Angry mob seized the Bastille on 14 July, sparked insurrections in many cities z. National Assembly wrote the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" 9. "Liberty, equality, and fraternity" was the slogan and values of the National Assembly {. The Assembly abolished the feudal system, altered the role of church |. France became a constitutional monarchy, 1791 10. The Convention replaced National Assembly under new constitution, 1791 }. Austrian and Prussian armies invaded France to restore ancien régime ~. Convention abolished the monarchy and proclaimed France a republic . King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette executed, 1793 . Radical Jacobins dominated the Convention in 1793-94 in a "reign of terror" . Revolutionary changes: in religion, dress, calendar, women's rights 11. The Directory, 1795-1799

. A conservative reaction against the excesses of the Convention . Executed the Jacobin...
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