Ap World Chapter 3 Outline

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AP World History - Stearns
Chapter 3 – Classical Civilization: India

I. Introduction – difference vs. China
a. China focus on politics/related philosophies vs. India focus on religion/social structure
b. Less cohesive political structure
c. Both were agricultural societies, localist flavor, male ownership, patriarchal, trade

II. The Framework for Indian History: Geography and a Formative Period a.Closer to other civilizations
1.Influenced by Middle East/Mediterranean
2.Persian Empires spilled over/Alexander also
3.. Forced to react and adapt
b.Topography
1.Passes through Himalayas linked India
2.Somewhat set apart
3.Political unity difficult – greater diversity than middle kingdom c.River civilizations – Indus and Ganges
d.Mountainous north – herding society
e.Separate regions contributed to:
1.economic diversity
2.racial differences
3.language differences
f.Unstable, monsoon climate – but helped with agriculture 1.Harvest two crops in a year, help support large population g.Formative period – Vedic and Epic ages – Aryan migrants – hunting and herding peoples 1.Knowledge passed down through epics written in Sanskrit – Vedas a.Mahabharata

b.Ramayana
c.Upanishads
2.Aryans settled, made tight-knit villages
a.Families patriarchal, connected across generation
b.Aryans created social classes
a.Warrior/governing – Kshatriyas
b.Priests – Brahmins
c.Traders/farmers – Vaisyas
d.Common laborers – Sudras
e.Untouchables – refuse, transporting dead bodies, other lovely jobs c.Social groups became hereditary
1.Can’t marry between castes – punishable by death
2.Broken into smaller subgroups
d.Aryans brought polytheistic religion – similar to Greek myth, Scandinavians a.One of few polytheistic religions to survive
1.Hymns/sacrifice
e.Upanishads – epic poems
a.Sacred animals – monkeys/cattle
b.Rituals and sacrifice
c.Brahmin class enforced rituals
d.Unifying divine force, seek union with this force

III. Patterns in Classical India – end of 600 BCE – formative phase A.16 major states existed – some monarchies, some republics – dominated by warriors/priests B.Eras often created as reaction to invaders

C.Mauryan Dynasty – Chandragupta Mauryan 322BCE – unified subcontinent a.maintained large armies
b.developed bureaucracy
c.highly autocratic – rely on ruler’s power
d.style of govt
i.autocratic – based on ruler’s personal/military power e.Ashoka – grandson – lavish lifestyle
i.influenced by nature/spiritualism
ii.but…bloodthirsty methods of expansion
iii.converted to Buddhism – think Constantine
1.spread Buddhism throughout empire, honored Hinduism – precedent iv.improved trade/ road network
f.Kushans – outside invaders – converted to Buddhism
i.but…bad for Buddhism – connected to outsiders
D.Guptas – 320 CE
a.no powerful individual rulers, but greater impact
b.negotiate w/ local princes
i.expanded influence w/out fighting – diff. than above
c.two generations of political stability – think Pax Romana E.Shifted between empires and network of smaller kingdoms

IV. Political Institutions
A.Regionalism – diversity
a.Autocratic kings once in awhile, but also aristocratic assemblies B.How did they maintain power?
a.Mauryan – military power
b.Gupta
i.negotiation
ii.appointed by gods
iii.allowed local rulers to have autonomy – think Rome
1.no single language imposed – promoted Sanskrit, but…
iv.Golden Age
1.spread laws
2.supported university, arts, literature
C.However…not an elaborate political culture
a.little political theory, not like Greeks
b.Kautilya – how to maintain power – like Legalism in China c.political service not valued as important
d.Buddhist leaders not interested in political affairs
D.Why the limitations?
a.local governments
b.caste system already regulated life – social behavior – political laws unnecessary i.subcastes, hereditary – can’t marry outside
1.but…marry...
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