Ap Us History Semester 1 Review Sheet

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  • Topic: Thirteen Colonies, King Philip's War, New England Colonies
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--UNIT ONE & TWO: EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST---

MAJOR EXPLORERS

Balboa
1511: goes to Panama and is the first explorer to see the Pacific and the Americas

Ponce de Leon (Spain)
1513: getting older
seeks Fountain of Youth -- goes to Florida to prevent aging

Magellan
wants to circumnavigate the world
gets killed in the Philippines but one of his boats successfully makes it given full credit -- Spain gains worldly agriculture

Cortes
major Spanish figure
followers were Conquistadores -- "God, Glory & Gold"
1519: goes to Mexico with 5~600 followers -- armed
Mexico: full of Indians known as Aztecs -- had gold -- Spanish interest leader: Monotezuma
powerful, ruthless tribe -- feared by other tribes
captured Indians and sacrificed them by pulling their hearts out 1519: Monotezuma gets scared
God named Quetzalcoatl was supposed to return and wipe out Aztecs
Quetzalcoatl: "tall, white man with bear"
1519: Cortes goes to Mexico and is mistaken for Quetzalcoatl Spanish are outnumbered -- better armed with guns, and horses
armor made it look like horse & man were attached -- "one" Conquistadores looked godly -- Aztecs got captured/defeated Mexico: main Spanish base
1530: PIzzaro conquers Incas

Coronado
1530: hears of 7 cities of gold in Southern U.S. territory -- explores

De Soto
1540: discovers Mississippi River

Spanish explorers -- taking over much of the New World

EXPLORATION

1400's: major time period for exploration

Vikings
985: Leif Ericson
went to Greenland and New Finland (Canada)
30/50 years -- Canadian colony
exploration ended in 50/70 years

Reasons for Exploration
1. Trade: gold, silver, and spices
spices were used to put on rotten meat for flavoring
2. Convert heathens
Prester John -- "mystical missionary" -- whereabout unknown 3. Glory: wanted fame and spreading of ideas
4. New Navigation techniques
astrolabe, compass -- easier for sailing/tacking

Reasons for enlisting in Sailing
1. Adventure: poor people wanted to see the world
2. Chances for riches: possibility of becoming wealthy

Conditions for Sailing:
poor hygiene
ships leaked
no showers
rapid spread of disease -- scurvy -- lack of vitamin C -- needed limes
loss of teeth, sunken eyes, pale skin

Portugal
wanted to go to Asia for silver, gold, and spices -- easier to go by sea Prince Henry made a Navigation School -- goal: go to Asia
sailors: fear of equator -- "burning"
Dias -- goes to Africa, but crew is terrified and goes back King names tip of Africa "Cape of Good Hope" -- 1480's
Vasca da Gama -- goes to Goa (India) -- discovers sea route to Asia

Spain
Columbus: wants to sail around the world -- goes West
gets rejected by the King of Portugal, Ferdinand & Isabella Isabella changes mind -- provides 3 ships for Columbus (1492) whatever Columbus discovers goes to Royalty (silver, gold, spices, etc..) Columbus lands and think it is in the Indies -- sailed around the World Columbus lands in Bahamas: Oct. 12, 1492

calls Natives "Indians"
returns to Spain and realizes the discovery of North America Geographic Revolution: new lands to conquer

Columbian Exchange (diffusion)
trading goods, culture, etc..
trading of food (sugar) and livestock
spreading of disease -- small pox (kills thousands of Native Americans)

Portugal and Spain feud over control of New World
1493: Pope (impartial) -- draws "Line of Demarcation"
Spain gets West and Portugal gets East
Treaty of Tordeillas: more land in South America for Portugal

Onate
1600's: set up Spanish settlement in Santa Fe (New Mexico)
same time: Virginia settlement -- Jamestown

Spain
Spanish gov.: bureaucratic (paperwork, rules, regulations)
hierarchy social system
head of Spanish settlements: King of Spain -- got 20% of gold #1 King -- #2 Council of Indies: decision-making -- #3: Viceroys: ruled in the New World (ex: Cortes)...
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