Chapter 01 - New World Beginnings
I. The Shaping of North America
1.Recorded history began 6,000 years ago. It was 500 years ago that Europeans set foot on the Americas to begin colonization 2.The theory of Pangaea exists suggesting that the
continents were once nestled together into one mega-continent. They then spread out as drifting islands.
3.Geologic forces of continental plates created the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. 4.The Great Ice Age thrust down over North America & scoured the present day American Midwest. II. Peopling the Americas
1.The Land Bridge theory.
oAs the Great Ice Age diminished, so did the glaciers over North America. oThe theory holds that a Land Bridge emerged
linking Asia & North America across what is now known as the Bering Sea. People were said to have walked across the "bridge" before the sea level rose and sealed it off; thus populating the Americas. oThe Land Bridge is said to have occurred an estimated 35,000 years ago. 2.Many peoples
oThose groups that traversed the bridge spread across North, Central, and South America. oCountless tribes emerged with an estimated 2,000 languages. Notably: Incas: Peru, with elaborate network of roads and bridges linking their empire. Mayas: Yucatan Peninsula, with their step pyramids.
Aztecs: Mexico, with step pyramids and huge sacrifices of conquered peoples. III. The Earliest Americans
1.Development of corn or maize around 5,000 B.C. in Mexico was revolutionary in that: oThen, people didn't have to be hunter-gatherers, they could settle down and be farmers. oThis fact gave rise to towns and then cities.
oCorn arrived in the present day U.S. around 1,200 B.C.
oThe Pueblos were the 1st American corn growers.
oThey lived in adobe houses (dried mud) and pueblos ("villages" in Spanish). Pueblos are villages of cubicle shaped adobe houses, stacked one on top the other and often beneath cliffs.
oThey had elaborate irrigation systems to draw water away from rivers to grown corn. 3.Mound Builders
oThese people built huge ceremonial and burial mounds and were located in the Ohio Valley. oCahokia, near East St. Louis today, held 40,000 people.
oEastern Indians grew corn, beans, and squash in three sister farming: Corn grew in a stalk providing a trellis for beans, beans grew up the stalk, squash's broad leaves kept the sun off the ground and thus kept the moisture in the soil.
This group likely had the best (most diverse) diet of all North American Indians and is typified by the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw (South) and Iroquois (North). 5.Iroquois Confederation
oHiawatha was the legendary leader of the group.
oThe Iroquois Confederation was a group of 5 tribes in New York state. oThey were matrilineal as authority and possessions passed down through the female line. oEach tribe kept their independence, but met occasionally to discuss matters of common interest, like war/defense. oThis was not the norm. Usually, Indians were scattered and separated (and thus weak). 6.Native Americans had a very different view of things as compared to Europeans. oNative Americans felt no man owned the land, the tribe did. (Europeans liked private property) oIndians felt nature was mixed with many spirits. (Europeans were Christian and monotheistic) oIndians felt nature was sacred. (Europeans felt nature and land was given to man by God in Genesis to be subdued and put to use). oIndians had little or no concept or interest in money. (Europeans loved money or gold) IV. Indirect Discoverers of the New World
1.The 1st Europeans to come to America were the Norse (Vikings from Norway). oAround 1000 AD, the Vikings landed, led by Erik the Red and Leif Erikson. oThey landed in Newfoundland or Vinland (because of all the vines). oHowever, these men left America and left no written record and...