Ap Us History Chapter Eight Vocabulary Terms

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Chapter 8 Term Sheet

1.Second Continental Congress (May 1775) - The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that met beginning on May 10, 1775, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, soon after warfare in the American Revolutionary War had begun. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met briefly during 1774, also in Philadelphia. The second Congress managed the colonial war effort, and moved incrementally towards independence, adopting the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. By raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, and making formal treaties, the Congress acted as the de facto national government of what became the United States.[1] With the ratification of the Articles of Confederation, the Congress became known as the Congress of the Confederation. 2.George Washington - George Washington is called "the father of his country" for his crucial role in fighting for, creating and leading the United States of America in its earliest days. Washington was a surveyor, farmer and soldier who rose to command the Colonial forces in the Revolutionary War. He held the ragtag Continental Army together -- most famously during a frigid encampment at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania during the winter of 1777-78 -- and eventually led them to victory over the British. 3.Ethan Allen/Ticonderoga - The capture of Fort Ticonderoga occured during the American Revolutionary War on May 10, 1775, when a small force of Green Mountain Boys led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold overcame a small British garrison at the fort and looted the personal belongings of the garrison. Canons and other ornaments from the fort were transported to Boston and used to fortify Dorchester Heights and break the standoff at the Seige of Boston. 4.Bunker Hill - (June 17, 1775) First major battle of the American Revolution. Within two months after the Battles of Lexington and Concord, more than 15,000 colonial troops assembled near Boston to prevent the British army from occupying several hills around the city, including Bunker and Breed's hills. The colonists fortified Breed's Hill in Charlestown, across the Charles River from Boston. They withstood a cannonade from British ships in Boston Harbor and fought off assaults by 2,300 British troops but were eventually forced to retreat. Although the British won the battle, it was a Pyrrhic victory that lent considerable encouragement to the revolutionary cause. British casualties (about 1,000) and the colonists' fierce resistance convinced the British that subduing the rebels would be difficult. 5.“Olive Branch Petition” (July 1775) - A document of American colonial grievances addressed to King George III and signed by members of the Continental Congress in July 1775. It was delivered by Richard Penn to the King in London in August 1775. The King refused to see him or the document. It was an effort by the Americans to resolve differences with Britain and to avert the Revolutionary War. 6.Hessians - German mercenaries who fought with the British forces in North America during the Revolutionary War. The 29, 000 German mercenaries represented about one-third of all British forces in America. Only some 17, 000 were actually subjects of the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel (i.e., genuine Hessians), the remainder came from other German principalities. They served in almost all the campaigns of the Revolutionary War suffering notable defeats at Trenton (1776) and during the Saratoga campaign (1777). A large number of Hessians remained in North America after the Revolutionary War. 7.Invasion of Canada (Montgomery/Arnold) - The first major military initiative by the newly formed Continential Army during the American Revolutionary War. The objective of the campaign was to gain militray control of the British province of Quebec, and convince the French speaking Canadians to join the revolution on the side of the thirteen...
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