AP US History Chapter 27 Notes

Topics: Theodore Roosevelt, William McKinley, Cuba Pages: 9 (1820 words) Published: February 13, 2014
Causes of American Imperialism
Need for foreign market
Missionaries
International Darwinism
Jingoism
Growth of Navy
International Plundering of Africa and Asia
Example set by Colonial Nations
Fear of losing out
Americans were bruising for war- aggressive attitude
American Attitudes
Reverend Josiah Strong:
Author of “Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis Theory was that Anglo- Saxton civilization is superior and American religion and values need to be spread Theodore Roosevelt and Henry Cabot Lodge (Massachusetts Senator): Promoted Social Darwinism (the earth belonged to the strong and fit) Alfred Thayer Mahan:

Author of “The Influence of Sea Power upon History, 1660-1783” Control of the sea is key to world dominance
Stimulated a naval race and the US demand for the Panama Canal Hawaii
Background:
US used it as a way station for shippers, sailors, and whalers 1820- New England Missionaries entered
1840- US has a heavy influence on Hawaii
Pearl Harbor, 1887:
US gains naval base rights
Annexation Attempt:
1893- bad economy because of McKinley Tariff
Led to effort to be annexed by US and a revolt against Local Rule Queen Liliuokalani
Opposed annexation and was put on house arrest
Grover Cleveland chose not to annex Hawaii
Believed the Hawaiians had been wronged and most were against the annexation Hawaii was annexed in 1898 at the end of the Spanish- American War US Business Interests in Hawaii
1875- Reciprocity Treaty
1890- McKinley Tariff (extremely high tariff)
1893—American Businessmen backed an uprising against Queen Liliuokalani Sanford Ballard Dole proclaims the Republic of Hawaii in 1892 Cubans Rise in Revolt
Misruled by Spain
Revolt against Spain in 1895
Rebel goals were to destroy sugar cane fields
This hurt Spain and drew the US into the conflict
US had $50 million invested
Trade worth $100 million per year
Frederick Remington (artist)
Hired by William Randolph Hearst, from the Yellow Press, to go to Cuba Said if Remington painted the pictures of horror from Cuba, Hearst would print them and “furnish a war” Spanish General Valeriano “Butcher” Weyler- 1896

Puts rebels into concentration camps
Around 200,000 die
De Lome Letters
Dupuy de Lome
Spanish ambassador to the US
Criticized President McKinley as weak, and “a bidder for the admiration of the crowd, besides being a would- be politician who tried to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party” America’s yellow press stirs citizens against Spain

USS Maine- February, 1898
Sent to Havana Harbor as a “friendly visit” to protect and evacuate US citizens Explodes in the harbor
US blames Spain- killed 260 soldiers
“Remember the Maine, to hell with Spain!”
Reasons the US Supported the Revolutionaries in Cuba:
Yellow Press (atrocity stories)
Outrage over the Spanish use of “concentration” camps
Fear of Spanish misrule in Cuba threatened the Gulf of Mexico and route to the future Panama Canal Sympathy for Cuban patriots fighting for their freedom (similar to US Revolution) USS Maine
Spanish- American War
President McKinley
Did not want war, but did not want to lose Cuba either
McKinley asks Congress for war on April 11, 1898
Teller Amendment:
Unselfish attempt from Congress
Promise Cuba they will be free after the war
Invasion of Cuba
US Navy fleet
Blocks Spanish ships in Cuban harbor
Superior to Spanish fleet
US realizes it need to land soldiers to drive out the Spanish US army is unprepared (wool uniforms in hot Cuban climate)
“Rough Riders”
Volunteer soldiers
Recruited by Teddy Roosevelt
Led by Colonel Leonard Wood
Famous for the charge up Kettle Hill
Other key battles: El Caney and San Juan Hill
Spanish- American War
The Spanish fleet tries to make a run for it
Entire fleet is sunk and 500 are killed
Puerto Rico
US General Miles- sent to take PR from the Spanish
Native population greeted the troops as liberating heroes...
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