Ap Psychology Study Guide Biology

Topics: Neuron, Nervous system, Brain Pages: 6 (887 words) Published: April 29, 2014
Chapter 3 review
components of a neuron (i.e., dendrites, axons, terminal buttons)

dendrites
A branched fiber that extends outward from the main cell body and carries information into the neuron. axon
In a nerve cell, an extended fiber that conducts information from the soma to the terminal buttons. Information travels along the axon in the form of an electric charge called the action potential. terminal buttons

Tiny bulblike structures at the end of the axon, which contain neurotransmitters that carry the neuron's message into the synapse.

action potential vs. resting potential
action potential
The nerve impulse caused by a charge in the electrical charge across the cell membrane of the axon. When the neuron "fires", this charge travels down the axon and causes neurotransmitters to be released by the terminal buttons. resting potential

The electrical charge of the axon in its inactive state, when the neuron is ready to "fire". absolute refractory period
Absolute Refractory Period
The minimum length of time after an action potential during which another action potential cannot begin.

Synapse
Synapse
A junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another.

order of synaptic transmission (how it communicates throughout the neuron) 1. Synaptic vesicles- Sacs in terminal buttons that release chemicals into synaptic space 2. Neurotransmitters- chemicals released by synaptic transmission Transmits info from one neuron to the next

3. Receptor sites- location on receptor neuron for specific neurotransmitters. neurotransmitters:
Acetychloline (ACHh)
-Released by motor neurons controlling skeletal muscles.
-Contributes to the regulation of attention, arousal, and memory.  -Loss of ach producing cells is linked to Alzheimer’s disease *Some receptors are stimulated by Nicotine (agonist)
Serotonin
-Involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, and aggression. -Low Serotonin= depression
-found throughout the brain
Dopamine (DA)
-Contributes to control of voluntary movement and pleasurable emotions. -plays role in learning, memory & emotions
-involved in pleasurable emotions
-Excess of dopamine- correlated with schizophrenia

GABA
-Serves as widely distributed inhibitory transmitter.
-Plays role of expression of seizures
-allows communication to go quicker
Norepineeohrine (NE)
-Contributes to modulation of mood and arousal.
-LOWER LEVELS OF ALL 3 NEUROTRANSMITTERS HAVE HIGHER RATES OF AGGRESSION Endorphins
-Resemble opiate drugs in structure and effects.
-Contribute to pain relief and to some pleasurable emotions. -Morphine- agonist

Difference with Somatic and Autonomic nervous system (Peripheral ) Somatic Nervous System
Made up of nerves that connect to voluntary skeletal muscles and to sensory receptors. -Consists of neurons that communicate between the body and the brain Peripheral Nervous System
Made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

Difference between afferent and efferent neurons (Somatic Nervous System) Efferent Neurons
-Motor neurons
-Neurons that carry messages from the spinal cord or brain to muscles and glands Afferent Nerve Fibers
-Neurons that carry messages from sense organs to spinal cord -Sensory neurons

Difference between sympathetic and parasympathetic system (Autonomic Nervous System) Parasympathetic Decision
Branch of the Autonomic nervous system that conserve bodily resources. Sympathetic Division
Branch of the Autonomic nervous system that mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies.

Parts of the Brain - What they do and where they are located: Thalamus

Forebrain

All sensory information (except smell) must pass to get to the cerebral cortex. Hypothalamus

Forebrain

-Influences motivated behavior
-Regulates basic biological needs ‘
-Hunger, thirst, body temperature
-4 F’s
-"fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating"
Hippocampus

Limbic System

Forebrain...
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