AP Psychology study guide

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Aging and Memory



Recalling new information declines during the early and middle adulthood years.



Older adults are able to recall meaningful information more easily thanmeaningless information, they may however take longer to produce words todescribe these memories



Thomas Cook and Robin West discovered that younger adults were more likely torecall names after one introduction, while older age groups had a poorer performance.



When asked how they heard a certain event or news , many could recallinstantaneously upon a few moments, while asking after a couple of months prompted variations in their recalls.



David Schonfield and Betty-Anne Robertson found that recognition memory is better for older adults early in the day rather late.



Being able to recognize a set of words via multiple choices had a minimal declinewhen compared to the results of each age. It was the recall of the words whichhad a greater difficulty



Time based tasks as well as habitual tasks decline over ageAging and Intelligence



Cross sectional studies are comparing people of different ages with one another.



These studies revealed that intelligence declined after early adulthood



They excluded the factors of generational differences of education as well as lifeexperiences



Longitudinal studies is the retesting the same people over a period of time, thesestudies showed that intelligence may be stable through out the years. Theyhowever, excluded the factors of people dropping out of studies, those who wereless intelligent and that in poor health.



The present day view is that fluid intelligence takes place by declining later in lifeand that crystallized intelligence does not. (Paul Baltes)



Crystallized intelligence is the accumulation of knowledge and skills



Fluid intelligence is the ability to reason speedily and abstractly



Scientists and mathematicians are more likely to have their best outcomes inearlier adulthood, while historians and writers experience success later in life.Adulthood’s Ages and Stages



Midlife transition...
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