State-dependent memory occurs when recall improves when individuals are in the same psychological state they were in when they encoded information. James will do better if he imagines himself in the same emotional state he was in during rehearsal. Arousal theory dictates that optimum performance occurs with moderate levels of arousal. James sees that he has become too aroused/excited and must get himself calmed down to give his best performance. Positive reinforcement is any desired consequence of a behavior that increases the likelihood of that behavior occurring again in the future. His friend praises James for a good performance during rehearsal. This positive reinforcement should increase the likelihood that James will perform well on opening night. Selective attention is when one focuses on one stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli. James has to block out all of the noise and excitement of opening night and focus. His ability to selectively attend will help him. Imagery is the use of mental pictures. James has been picturing what it would be like to take the stage on opening night. He has been using mental images to rehearse in advance how the performance should go. Social facilitation occurs when the presence of others enhances performance. The presence of the audience on opening night will cause James to perform better than he would without the audience. Sensory adaptation is when a response to a stimulus decreases with time. The stage lights were very bright at the brightness of a scene and James could not see well. After a few moments, he could see well enough to find his next place on the stage.