Ap Psych: Sensation and Perception

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Intro
Senses connect us to ourselves and surroundings.
Sensation: the raw information, doesn't yet mean anything to you until... Perception: the mental process of sorting, identifying, and and arranging raw sensory data. Enduring Issues in Sensation and Perception

Person-Situation: how accurately perceptual experiences reflect the world Mind-Body: experience depending in biological processes
Diversity-University: How similarly people experience events Stability-Change, Nature-Nurture: How our experience changes our perceptions of the outside world The Nature of Sensation
Sensation: the experience if sensory stimulation
Receptor Cell: A specialized cell that responds to a particular type of energy "Fire" when enough stimulation is received and sends signals to the brain Transduction: The conversion of physical energy into coded neural signals Precise coded signal eventually received by the brain depends on how many neurons fire, which neurons fire, and how rapidly these neurons fire.  Doctrine of specific nerve engines: any stimulation of a specific nerve will result in an experience of that nerve's specialty. (Ex. Pressure on your eye causing you to "see spots." Although it was activated by light, the result is still visual.) Sensory Thresholds

Absolute Threshold: The physical energy required to reach a receptor cell if it is to produce any sensation.  Not always precise, so is defined as when a person can sense the stimulus 50% of the time it is present. Tend to be remarkably low, although vary from person to person Adaption: adjustment if the senses to the amount of stimulus they are receiving. Allows senses to be keen to the environment without getting overwhelmed Difference Threshold/Just-Noticeable Difference (JND): the smallest change in stimulation that can be detected 50% of the time Changes depending on the strength of the original stimulus

Weber's Law: The principle that the JND for any gave sense is a constant fraction or proportion of the stimulation being judged. Subliminal Perception
Subliminal: Below our level of awareness
You don't realize you're taking in the information
So not usually have a true effect outside a laboratory setting Extrasensory Perception (ESP):  the ability to acquire information without using ordinary senses. (Clairvoyance, telepathy, precognition) Parapsychology: studies ESP and other psychic phenomena

Vision
The Visual System
Cornea: the transparent protective coating over the front of the eye Pupil: a small opening in the iris through which light enters the eye Iris: colored part, regulates the size of the pupil
Dim light: relax, wider, lets in more light
Bright light: contract, smaller, blocks out some light
Lens: the transparent part of the eye behind the pupil that focuses light onto the retina Retina: the lining of the eye containing receptor cells that are sensitive to light. Changes shape to focus on object closer or further away.

Close: rounder; Far: flatter
Fovea: the area of the retina that is the center of the visual field Things here have the sharpest focus
Receptor Cells
Wavelengths: different energies represented in the electromagnetic spectrum--how we see colors. Shortest: purple, Longest: red
Rods: receptor cells in. The retina responsible for night vision and perception of brightness (dark/light) Cones: receptor cells in the retina responsible for color vision. Mostly in the fovea. Bipolar cells: neurons that have one one axon and one dendrite; in the eye, these neurons connect the receptors on the retina to the ganglion cells. Visual acuity: the ability to distinguish fine details visually. More rods and cones connected to eat bipolar cell, the more this decreases. One-to-one cone-to-bipolar cell ratio in the fovea

Fovea contains almost no rods, so it's useless in low light
Adaption
Dark adaptation: process by which rods and cones become more sensitive to light Light adaptation: rods and cones...
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