AP Psych Ch 10, 12, 13 Study Guide
CHAPTER 10| PERSONALITY|
Personality| A person’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting| Free association| In psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial and embarrassing| Psychoanalysis| Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions| Unconscious| According to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories| The Id| The bad thing; the devil on your shoulder saying, “Do it do it…”-Unconscious desires (sex, drugs)| Superego| Good guy; little angel on your shoulder saying, “You know that’s not right…”-Moral compass that details right from wrong| Ego | Negotiator who keeps both sides happy-The “smart guy” who figures out a way for the id and the superego to get what they want| Oral stage| 0-8 months, pleasure enters on the mouth|
Anal stage| 18 months-3 years, pleasure centers on potty training| Phallic stage| 3-6 years, pleasure centers on the genitals including incestuous feelings| Latency| 6-puberty, sexuality is dormant (inactive)|
Genital| Puberty+, sexuality is matured|
Defense mechanisms| Emerge when ego cannot do its job|
Repression| Pushing desires that cause anxiety out of our consciousness | Regression| Going back to our comfortable childhood days when we face stressful situations| Reactions formation| Freud thought we had desires that we know we couldn’t allow to surface| Projection| Hides those bad desires by projecting them onto other people| Rationalization| Occurs when we make up a justification for doing something that we know is wrong| Displacement| Directs the unwanted desire (sex or aggression) towards something m ore acceptable than the root of desire| Sublimation| Changing into those unwanted desires into something socially valued| Denial| Person rejects that a problem is real or that its actually serious| Gordon Allport| Importance of traits for a person’s personality with the concepts of cardinal traits, central traits, and specific dispositions | Hans Eysenck| Basic dimensions of a personality are introversion-extroversion trait dimensions, where differences in activity level and activity preferences are found| Raymond Cattell| Distinguished bivariate, multivariate, and clinical approaches to research in personality| Five-Factor Theory of Personality| An emerging consensus among trait theorists suggesting five basic factors to human personality: neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness| Extroversion| Assesses quantity and intensity of interpersonal interaction: activity level: need for stimulation: and capacity for joy| Neuroticism| Assesses adjustment vs. emotional instability. Identifies individuals prone to psychological distress, unrealistic ideas, excessive cravings or urges, and maladaptive coping responses| Conscientiousness| Assesses the individual’s degree of organization, persistence, and motivation in goal-directed behavior. Contrasts dependable, fastidious people with those who are lackadaisical and sloppy| Agreeableness| Assesses the quality of one’s interpersonal orientation along a continuum from compassion to antagonism in thoughts, feelings, and actions| Openness to experience| Assesses proactive seeking and appreciation of experience for its own sake; toleration for and exploration of the unfamiliar| Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)| Empirically derived (comparison of groups)| Person-situation controversy| Idea that while personality traits may be enduring, the resulting behavior in different situations is different| Consistency of expressive style| Speaking and gestures...