Ap Human Geography Midterm Study Guide

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Demographic Transition Model:

Current Global Migration Patterns

Matching Terms!
Scale: The ratio between the distance on the map and the distance on the Earth’s actual surface Spatial: Pertaining to space on the Earth’s surface
Anthropogenic: Human-induced changes on the natural environment Idiographic: A special place in one specific area
Connectivity: The degree of economic, social, cultural or political connection between two places (NYC/LA vs. NYC/Woodbridge) Contagious diffusion: Spread through direct contact between a person or a place with nearly everyone affected. Hierarchical diffusion: Spread first through the most connected/similar places or between those most susceptible (AIDS, HipHop) Relocation diffusion: Spread through migration and immigration Stimulus diffusion: A cultural adaptation is created as a result of diffusion. Demography: The study of human populations

Cohort: A population group unified by specified common characteristics Ecumene: An inhabited place
Homeostasis Plateau: population reaches carrying capacity
Total Fertility Rate: The average number of children born each woman over her lifetime Natural Rate of increase: CBR-CDR
Arithmetic Density: Number of people DIVIDED BY total land area
Physiological Density: Number of people DIVIDED BY total amount of arable land
Vernacular: Nonstandard language or dialect adopted by a social group
Dialect: Regional variations of a dominant language
Pidgin: A language with a small vocabulary and simple syntax derived from two or more languages used between two people who speak different languages
Creole: A complete language that began as pidgin but is now a narrative language in a region
Antecedent boundary: Drawn before an area is well populated
Subsequent boundary: Draw after an area has been settled
Superimposed Boundary: Forced on an existing cultural landscape, Country, or People by a conquering or colonizing power that is unconcerned about preexisting cultural patterns
Relic Boundary: A former boundary line that no longer functions as such, but is still marked by landscape features or differences on the two sides
Race: A socially constructed idea that separates people by biological characteristics
Ethnicity: people or nation. Ethnic Homelands, Ethnic Island, Ethnic Neighborhoods

Mercator: Used for ship navigation. (Accurate-Compass direction.Distorted-size)
Robinson: Used by national geographic (Accurate-Nothing.Distorted- Everything)
Choropleth Map: Using colors and shadings
GIS- A map using thematic layers
Formal region: An area that shares one characteristic (Language, religion..)
Functional Region: An area around a node (Radio Station range..)
Perceptional Region: Based on perception or feelings (Midwest Dixie..)
Small scale-Large area w/ little detail VS. large scale- Small area w/ lots of detail
Environmental Determinism: The belief that the physical environment is the dominant force in shaping human actions and cultures. VS Possiblism: The belief that human choice is the primary determinant of cultural development

Demographic Accounting Equation: Population= Births-Deaths + Immigration-Emigration
Gravity Model: Population1 x Population2 / Distance
Time-space compression: Distance is shrinking due to technology
Overpopulation: When population out numbers natural resources
Cultural Complex: Collection of cultural traits
Lingua Franca: Common language between two natives
Theocracy: A government run by a religious leader
Irredentism: When people claim land when they aren’t from there
Balkanization: The breaking up of a country due to religious conflicts
Fundamentalism: Strict beliefs and interpretations of sacred writing
Distance Decay: The bigger the distance from two places, people, object, the less interaction
Multilingualism: Knowing more than one language....
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