•1/6 of the world’s population is malnourished
•We have plenty of food
•Major causes of malnourishment are
oFood distribution failure
oCultural practices that favour men over women and children •Hunger depends on who owns the land and how the land is connected to the Global Economy •The most productive lands in Kenya are those owned by foreign coffee and tea corporations. •Kenya suffers from the complexities of globalization, tiny farms are unproductive and foreign companies own their best land •Human geography focuses on how people make places, how we organize space and society, how we interact with the world. •Globalization is a set of processes that are increasing interactions, deepening relationships, and heightening interdependence without regard to country borders. •Physical geography is the study of physical phenomena on earth. •Spatial distribution of a phenomenon is typically the first step to understanding it. •Virtually all human geographers or physical geographers all are interested in the spatial arrangement of places and phenomena, how they laid out, organized, and arranged, on the earth, and how they appear on the landscape. •In medical geography, mapping the distribution of a disease is the first step to finding its cause. •By using medical geography, geographers could see how cholera was waterborne and had poisoned the pump. •Human Geographers use a spatial perspective as they study a multitude of phenomena ranging from political election and urban shantytowns to gay neighbourhoods and folk music. •The five themes of geography are derived from the spatial perspective of geography. •The first theme is location, location highlights how the geographical position of people and things on the Earth’s surface affects what happens and why. •The second theme is human environment. Geographers study the reciprocal relationship between humans and environments. •The third theme of geography is the region. Feature are not evenly distributed on the surface of earth, features tend to be concentrated in particular areas called regions. •The fourth theme is place. All places on the surface of the earth have unique human and physical characteristics, and one of the purposes of geography is to study the special character and meaning of places. •The fifth theme is movement, the mobility of people, goods, and ideas across the surface of the planet. •Movement is an expression the interconnectedness of the distances among places and the accessibility of places. •Landscape is a core element of geography.
•Geographers use the term landscape to refer to the material character of a place, the complex of natural features, the human structures, and other tangible objects that give places a particular form. •Maps and cartography are used for countless purposes.
•Reference maps show locations of places and geographic features •Thematic maps tell stories, typically showing the degree of some attribute or the movement of a geographic phenomenon •Reference maps allow you to plot precisely where on Earth something is. •The establishment of GPS allows us to locate things on the surface of the earth with extraordinary accuracy. •Relative location describes a place in relation to other human and physical features. •Mental maps are maps that we carry in our minds of places where we have been or seen in a picture. •Culture influences location decisions, patterns, and landscapes. •A cultural hearth is an area where cultural traits develop and from which the cultural traits diffuse. • The process of dissemination, the spread of an idea or innovation from its hearth/source area to other places is known as cultural diffusion. •Cultural barriers work against diffusion because a certain cultural practice is not acceptable in another culture.
Chapter 14 Geographic Concepts
Fieldwork: The study of geographic phenomena by vising places and...