Chapter 17 Guided Reading
1. Columbian Exchange- the exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americans and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyage. 2. Council of the Indies- the institution responsible for supervising Spain’s colonies in the Americas from 1524 to the early eighteenth century, when it lost all but judicial responsibilities. 3. Bartolone de Las Casas- a priest who was the most influential defender of the Amerindians in the earl colonial period. He became the first bishop of Chiapas in southern Mexico and he served as the most important advocate of the native peoples. His greatest achievement was the enactment of the New Laws in 1542, which outlawed the enslavement of Amerindians and limited other forms of force. 4. Potosi- located in Bolivia, it is one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. 5. Encomienda- a grant of authority over a population of Amerindians in the Spanish colonies. It provided the grant holder with a supply of cheap labor and periodic payments of goods by the Amerindians. It obliged the grant holder to Christianize the Amerindians. 6. Creoles-in colonial Spanish America, term used to describe someone of European descent born in the New World. Elsewhere in the Americas, the term is used to describe all nonnative peoples. 7. Mestizos- peoples of mixed Amerindian and European descent. This term was given my Spanish authorities. 8. Mulattos- peoples of mixed African and European descent. The Spanish and Portuguese used this term. 9. Indentured Servants- a migrant to British colonies in the Americas who paid for passage by agreeing to work for a set term ranging from our to seven years. 10. House of Burgesses- A Colonial government that was administered by a Crown-appointed governor and his council, as well as by representatives of towns meeting together 11. Pilgrims- group of English...
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