Ap Eurp Ch 14 Outline

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5. Luther’s answers as delineated in the Confession of Augsburg to the four basic theological issues were the following. When asked how a person is saved, Luther said by faith alone. When asked where does religious authority reside, Luther said in the Word of God, as revealed in the Bible alone. When asked what is the church, he said the entire Christian community. Luther said there is no highest form of Christian life, all are equal.

6. His violent opposition to the Peasant's War made his teachings popular among northern German princes. This linkage became ingrained into Protestant German society from the time of Reformation and on. The predominantly Roman Catholic German speaking populations often used their affiliation to the papacy as a justification for political dissidence.

7. Some of the German princes - especially Frederick, Elector of Saxony - were "Protestants" who opposed the Edict of Worms. Frederick "kidnapped" Martin Luther after Luther was released by the Diet of Worms and protected him for the next several years. By this time, a number of German princes and a significant number of the German people had aligned themselves with Luther, and the Holy Roman Emperor was no longer in a strong political position to neutralize Luther.

8. It was a model Christian community for the 16th Century Protestant reformers. It was a society that was ruled by God through civil magistrates and reformed ministers. The whole city was ran by the church, they set up to prove a religion could run a land and acted as their own form of government, this is a theocracy.

9.The Anabaptists were radical because they showed religious toleration, they knew little children could not choose the religion they wanted to follow, so they did not baptize them. They also admitted women into the ministry. They were persecuted because leaders believed church and state would begin separating from one another.

10. The main cause of the English Reformation was the desire of Henry VIII (1509-1547) to divorce his wife so that he could marry Ann Boleyn (1534-1536) so that he could have a son. Henry could not get permission from the Pope for a divorce, so he declared the Church of England separate from Rome, with himself in charge instead of the Pope. He granted himself the divorce and married Ann. Another reason for English Reformation was that Henry needed money to modernize and enlarge the English army so that England could become a major European power. He could get this money by plundering the assets of the Catholic Church in England. This all resulted in England becoming a Protestant nation, but this caused social problems. Catholic states in Europe became enemies, and people were uncomfortable with the idea of being forced to become Protestant. 11. The Elizabeth Settlement was a legislation by Parliament in the early years of the Elizabeth reign (1558-1603), which required outward conformity in all ceremonies, and everyone must attend church of England or else be fined.

12. Charles V was considered the last medieval ruler.  He believed that “God has sent him on a path toward world monarchy” and was convinced that it was his duty to maintain the political and religious unity of Western Christendom.  Charles inherited Spain, the New World possessions, and the Spanish dominions in Italy, Sicily, and Sardinia from his mother.  He inherited the Habsburg lands in Austria, southern Germany, the Low Countries, and Franche-Comté in east-central France from his father.

13. The Ursuline order was started by Angela Merici in order to combat heresy through Christian education. They sought to re-Christianize society by training future wives and mothers. It was the first woman’s religious order concentrating exclusively on teaching young girls. Their schools spread to France, the New World, and North America and provided superior education for young women and inculcated the spiritual ideas of the Catholic Reformation. The Society of...
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