Ap European History Semester One Study Guide

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AP European History Study Guide
Pre-Renaissance
* Middle Ages: began around 500 AD and ended around 1450 AD * Early Middle Ages
* Roman Empire fell, Europe is turbulent and dark
* Europe is being created by Germanic, Roman, and Church * Church
* power founded in papacy
* was political as well as spiritual
* bishop of Rome lead Church
* began the Pope system
* Pope>Archbishops>Bishops>Priests
* to go to heaven, followers had to go through church
* Pope could excommunicate, cutting off people from church and heaven, gave him a lot of power * Feudalism
* system in which kings gave land to their subject in return for aid * vassals pledged themselves to their lord for protection * Kings>Lords>Knights>Serfs
* created relationships between lords and vassals benefiting both, provided military service and protection for weaker people

Renaissance

* Conditions that led to the Renaissance in Italy:
* Because of the Crusades, and the new trade routes, Europeans began to come in contact with other, more advanced civilizations, which influenced them greatly * The Church, due to the scandals that occurred, lost much of its power and people began to doubt its ultimate authority * Due to trade, the middle class grew, and people began to accumulate vast sums of money. They then wanted to enjoy and show off their wealth, which led to a philosophy of enjoying this life instead of simply waiting for the next one * Competition between wealthy people for status led to developments in education and art, since wealthy people, wanting to be respecting, would compete to see who was the most educated or had sponsored the most artists. * Humanism

* began by Italian intellectualists that wanted education to place more emphasis on the classics and helping people lead better lives * wanted to study classics so that they could learn the right way to conduct their lives and the elegance to persuade people to their style of thinking * most humanists read church writings as avidly as pagan writings and believed that values were rooted in religious piety

* Gioto
* painter
* showed a sense of realism, powerful emotion, immediacy that contradicted other artists of his time who painted with formal and restrained styles * Donatello
* sculptor
* focused on the beauty of the body, distinct concern of the ancients

* Movement in literature:
* Castiglione- The Courtier, taking form of a conversation between the sophisticated men and women of a court, became a manual of proper behavior for gentlemen and ladies * Giovanni Pico- believed that he could reconcile all philosophies and show that single truth lay behind them all * High Renaissance artists:

* Leonardo Da Vinci
* always wanted to find new ways to do things
* unable to resist solving practical problems
* his paintings show marvels of technical virtuosity * makes difficult angles, tricks of perspective, and bizarre geological formations look easy * Famous paintings: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper

* Raphael
* used practiced techniques of perspective and ancient styles to produce works of perfect harmony, beauty, and serenity * paintings contained a relaxed style, showed an artist in complete command of his materials and can create sunny scenes that are balanced and at peace * Famous Paintings: The Schools of Athens, is a tribute to the ancients as well as to other artists of the Renaissance * Michelangelo

* ultimate Renaissance artist in that he was a master in all means of expression: painting, poetry, architecture, and sculpture * constantly sought new effects, no two of his sculptures were alike * Conveys the glory of the human being in his art by depicting unnatural vigor in...
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