Ap European History Chapter 17 Notes

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PChapter 17 notes
Toward a new world view 1540-1789
* The scientific revolution
* Scientific thought in 1500
* Thomas Aquinas- brought Aristotelian philosophy into harmony with christen doctrine * Ptolemy- planets move in epicycles
* Origins of the scientific revolution
* Permanent universities
* Recovery of ancient works
* Printing press
* Copernican hypothesis
* Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543- polish cleric
* On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres 1543
* Challenges to Aristotelian philosophy
* Stars at rest planetary movement
* large universe
* earth was just another planet
* challenged by Calvin and Luther
* Proving Copernicus right
* Tycho Brahe- 1546-1601
* Built most sophisticated observatory in 1572
* Developed Rudolph Tables
* Johannes Kepler -1571-1630
* Developed three new and revolutionary laws of planetary motion * orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical rather than circular * planets do not move at a uniform speed in their orbits * Kepler published the first two laws in his 1609 book, The New Astronomy * The time of plan it takes to make its complete orbit is precisely related to insist on * In 1627 fulfilled berets pledged by completing the Rudolph fine type tables * Pioneered the field of optics, invented an improved telescope * Galileo Galilei 1564-1642

* His great achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experiential method * Formulated the law of inertia – his discoveries proved Aristotelian physics wrong * Discovered the first four moons of Jupiter

* Galileo was tried for heresy by the public relations, imprisoned and threatened with torture the aging Galileo recanted * Newton’s synthesis
* By 1640 the work of Brahe, Kepler, and Galileo had been largely excepted by the scientific community * Isaac Newton 1642-1727 (enrolled at Cambridge University in 1661) * Fascinated by alchemy (left behind 30 years worth of encoded journals recording experiments to discover the elixir of life in a way to change base metals into gold and silver) * During a break from studies because of an outbreak of plague he discovered his law of universal gravitation as well as the concept of centripetal force and acceleration * He outlined his method of scientific inquiry most clearly explaining the need for scientists “first to inquire diligently into the properties of things, and to establish these properties by experiment, and then to proceed more slowly to iPod in the explanation of them” * 1684 Newton returned to physics in the preparation of his ideas for publication. Space the result. Three years later in Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy * Laid down Newton’s three laws of motion

* Bacon, Descartes, and the scientific method
* Francis Bacon 1561-1626, Renée Descartes space 1596-1650 * Bacon’s contribution was to formalize the empirical method, which had been used by Brahe and Galileo, into the general theory of inductive reasoning known as empiricism * French philosopher René Descartes discovered analytic geometry, Descartes met mechanistic view of the universe dependent on the idea that a vacuum was impossible, so that every action had an equal reaction, continuing in an eternal chain reaction * Descartes believes that God had endowed man with the reason for our purpose in that rational speculation could provide a path to the truth of creation * Bacon’s inability to appreciate the importance of net pneumatics and his obsession with practical results...
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