Ap Euro Term Review

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Italian/Northern Renaissance| |
Medici Family| They dominated Florence during the 15th century and were interested in industry, trade, and banking. The first was Giovanni di Bicci de’Medici (1360-1429), and the most famous was Lorenzo the Magnificent (1449-1492), the great grandson of Giovanni. Medici power fell after Savonarola (1452-1498), a Franciscan friar, gained power, and therefore, Florence was never the same.| Humanism| England: * Started taking hold in early 15th century taught in schools in 16th century * Colet[1467-1519 (gave humanist lectures)] and More[1478-1535 (greatest humanist of England, Utopia (1516))]France: * French scholars studied in Italy became enthusiastic humanists * 15th century, Greek began to be studied * 1529, King Francis I (1515-1547) established College de France in Paris encouraged study of Hebrew, Greek, and LatinSpain: * Central figure of humanism was a churchman, Cardinal Francisco Ximenes de Cisneros (1436 – 15170 urged an improvement of education level in Spanish clergy, established University of Alcala, and made a multi-lingual (Hebrew, Greek, and Latin) BibleGermany: * Johann Reuchlin (1455-1522) visited Italy encouraged German curriculum to be extended to Hebrew and Greek languages and literature * Development of Christian humanism| Classicism/Antiquity| Term for a long period of cultural history in the Balkans from the earliest recorded poetry of Homer (8th – 7th century BC) to the emergence of Christianity and the fall of the Roman Empire (5th century AD). These ideals were preserved and imitated during the Renaissance. | Florence| Ruled by a small oligarchy, Florence was a major center of the handicraft industry, textiles, and banking. It was ruled by the Medici family for most of the 15th century, but when the Franciscan friar, Savonarola (1452-1498) gained power and exercised strict and puritanical rule over the city, he was executed at the stake. His rule marked the ended of the great age of Florence.| Artists/writers| |

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)| He was born in Florence, and he produced his works in many different places, such as Milan, Rome, and France. He was the first Italian artist to use oil paints (developed in Flanders). Famous works were Mona Lisa (1502), The Last Supper (1495-1498) fresco in a Dominican friary in Milan, and The Virgin of the Rocks (1485) experimented with light and shadow. He was also interested in science fossils, anatomy, human skeleton, and several inventions (ones that are present today).| Michelangelo (1475-1564)| Worked mainly in Florence and Rome was a painter but mostly sculptor. Famous works were frescoes on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican (1508-1512), Last Judgement (1534-1541) in the Vatican, the statue David (1501-1504), Moses (1513-1515), and made several pietas (Mary holding the dead body of Jesus).| Castiglione (1478-1529) & Virtu| Humanist and papal diplomat, wrote The Book of the Courtier (1518) presented the rules of gentlemanly behavior knowing Greek and Latin. He emphasized the study of classical languages and literature. Virtu is the essence of being a man by the display of courage and cleverness. | Petrarch (1304-1374)| Developed the Italian sonnet (poem of 14 lines, groups of 8 and 6 individual rhyme scheme for each) and was one of the first writers to try to imitate Latin literature. His Italian works were much better than his Latin ones.| Machiavelli (1469-1527)| He was the most important write on politics during the Italian Renaissance because of The Prince (1513), which developed the first secular view on politics.| Lutheranism| |

Christian Humanism| It commonly refers to humanism during the Northern Renaissance where Christian humanists tried to unite humanism and Christianity. They wanted to achieve a balance of otherworldliness and secular concerns, using classical literature as their guide.| Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536)|...
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