▪New golden age/"rebirth"
▪Began in Italy
▪Georgio Vasari coined the term "renaissance"
▪Beginnings of individualism, personal recognition and less glory for God
▪Printing press allowed the movement to spread
▪At the time, italy was under the control of the HRE
▪Urban underclass: popolo minuto "the people"
▪Wealthy class: popolo grosso
▪Ciompi Revolt: Florentine revolt of the popolo minuto. They gained control for a short period of time.
▪Caused a rise of tyranny in other city-states
▪Medicis: Florentine banking family, very wealthy, held power from behind the scenes
▪Main city-states: Florence, Milan, Venice, papal states, Naples
▪wealthy Italian merchants became patrons of the arts
▪Italy's location was perfect for a Renaissance: perfectly between the East and West
▪humanism was a return to classical education
▪Francesco Petrarch: father of humanism. He learned Latin to study classical works, especially those of Cicero. He coined "Dark Ages".
▪He, and most other humanists, leaned to secular learning but were still Catholic and religious.
▪Plato was an inspiration for humanists
▪They liked his belief that beauty and truth existed beyond what the senses could discover.
▪Pico de Mirandola = Oration on the Dignity of Man.
▪Castiglione = The Courtier. Ideal man described "Renaissance Man".
▪Lorenzo Vallo proved the Donation of Constantine to be false and that some Bible passages were mistranslated.
▪Some women (often in nunneries) learned to read and write
▪Leonardo Bruni created education system for women but it left out certain aspects of a male's education
▪Christine de Pisan = The City of Ladies. Women needed an area in which they could flourish and show their talents.
▪chiaroscuro=shading, single-point perspective part of Renaissance art
▪Filippo Bunelleschi created a dome (first once since the collapse of the Roman Empire)
▪High Renaissance began in the end of the 15th century. Rome became ideal for art.
▪In 1520s art switched to a new style, more distorted
▪Leonardo Da Vinci - Renaissance man. Well-rounded citizen. Painted the Mona Lisa.
▪Raphael - The School of Athens. Commissioned to create works of art for the Vatican.
▪Michelangelo - David. Commissioned by Florence to inspire the people in their fight against Milan. Julius II commissioned a lot of works from him. Worked on the Sistine Chapel.
▪Northern Renaissance - more Christian, came along later than the Italian humanists
▪The art featured peasant life, religious figures
▪Desiderius Erasmus - In the Praise of Folly, Handbook of the Christian Knight, translated the New Testament into Latin.
▪Sir Thomas More - English, wrote Utopia. Died because he would not accept Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England.
▪The Decameron by Boccaccio
▪Johannes Gutenberg (German) created the printing press
▪Black Death = rampant plague
▪anticlericalism = disrespect towards Catholic clergy
▪pietism = direct relationship between a person and God
▪French papacy was in Avignon, France in the 14th Century
▪poorly educated lower clergy, simony (selling of church offices)
▪John Wycliffe (followers=lollards) urged people to interpret the bible's teachings for themselves. He translated it into English.
▪Jan Hus led revolt in Bohemia - eventually burned at the stake as a heretic after being charged by the Council of Constance
▪Martin Luther disapproved of the selling of indulgences
▪Albert of Hohenzollern sold indulgences after borrowing money from the Fuggers.
▪Johann Tetzel sold indulgences
▪Luther posted 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg
▪Luther found a lot of support
▪Frederick the Elector of Saxony and some other princes showed Luther support
▪Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms (meeting of German nobility) where he refused to repudiate his beliefs...