Ap Euro Renaissance/30 Years War

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Jasmine Weber

Renaissance
New golden age/"rebirth"
Began in Italy
Georgio Vasari coined the term "renaissance"
Beginnings of individualism, personal recognition and less glory for God
Printing press allowed the movement to spread
At the time, italy was under the control of the HRE
Urban underclass: popolo minuto "the people"
Wealthy class: popolo grosso
Ciompi Revolt: Florentine revolt of the popolo minuto. They gained control for a short period of time.
Caused a rise of tyranny in other city-states
Medicis: Florentine banking family, very wealthy, held power from behind the scenes
Main city-states: Florence, Milan, Venice, papal states, Naples
wealthy Italian merchants became patrons of the arts
Italy's location was perfect for a Renaissance: perfectly between the East and West
humanism was a return to classical education
Francesco Petrarch: father of humanism. He learned Latin to study classical works, especially those of Cicero. He coined "Dark Ages".
He, and most other humanists, leaned to secular learning but were still Catholic and religious.
Plato was an inspiration for humanists
They liked his belief that beauty and truth existed beyond what the senses could discover.
Pico de Mirandola = Oration on the Dignity of Man.
Castiglione = The Courtier. Ideal man described "Renaissance Man".
Lorenzo Vallo proved the Donation of Constantine to be false and that some Bible passages were mistranslated.
Some women (often in nunneries) learned to read and write
Leonardo Bruni created education system for women but it left out certain aspects of a male's education
Christine de Pisan = The City of Ladies. Women needed an area in which they could flourish and show their talents.
chiaroscuro=shading, single-point perspective part of Renaissance art
Filippo Bunelleschi created a dome (first once since the collapse of the Roman Empire)
High Renaissance began in the end of the 15th century. Rome became ideal for art.
In 1520s art switched to a new style, more distorted
Leonardo Da Vinci - Renaissance man. Well-rounded citizen. Painted the Mona Lisa.
Raphael - The School of Athens. Commissioned to create works of art for the Vatican.
Michelangelo - David. Commissioned by Florence to inspire the people in their fight against Milan. Julius II commissioned a lot of works from him. Worked on the Sistine Chapel.
Northern Renaissance - more Christian, came along later than the Italian humanists
The art featured peasant life, religious figures
Desiderius Erasmus - In the Praise of Folly, Handbook of the Christian Knight, translated the New Testament into Latin.
Sir Thomas More - English, wrote Utopia. Died because he would not accept Henry VIII as the head of the Church of England.
The Decameron by Boccaccio
Johannes Gutenberg (German) created the printing press

Reformation
Black Death = rampant plague
anticlericalism = disrespect towards Catholic clergy
pietism = direct relationship between a person and God
French papacy was in Avignon, France in the 14th Century
poorly educated lower clergy, simony (selling of church offices)
Great Schism
John Wycliffe (followers=lollards) urged people to interpret the bible's teachings for themselves. He translated it into English.
Jan Hus led revolt in Bohemia - eventually burned at the stake as a heretic after being charged by the Council of Constance
Martin Luther disapproved of the selling of indulgences
Albert of Hohenzollern sold indulgences after borrowing money from the Fuggers.
Johann Tetzel sold indulgences
Luther posted 95 Theses on the church door in Wittenberg
Luther found a lot of support
Frederick the Elector of Saxony and some other princes showed Luther support
Luther appeared before the Diet of Worms (meeting of German nobility) where he refused to repudiate his beliefs...
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