Ap Euro: Mchapter 26 Outline

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Chelsea Kim
Mr. Brewer
AP European History, Period 5
4-2-13
Chapter 26 Outline
* An Uncertain Peace
* The Decline of the West by German writer Oswald Spengler (1880-1936): reflected the idea that something was drastically wrong with Western values when he emphasized the decadence of Western civilization and posited its collapse * The Impact of World War I

* As over 10 million people died in the war, an immediate response to these deaths was ceremonies to honor the dead as well as memorial parks, large monuments, and massive cemeteries (with ossuaries or vaults where the bones of thousands of unidentified bones were interred) * Created a lost generation of war veterans who became accustomed to violence * After the war, the veterans became pacifists

* For others, violence of war became a starting point for violence in political movements in 1920s-1930s * Extremely nationalistic and eager to restore the national interests from the war * The Search for Security

* The peace treaties attempted to fulfill the 19th century nationalism by reestablishing boundaries and creating new states but failed to work * President Wilson saw the problems that arose with the treaty and placed hopes in the League of Nations * League of Nations not very ineffective due to no participation from U.S. * Sole weapon for halting aggression was economic sanctions * France was left alone and embittered

* Due to the weak League of Nations and the failure of Britain and U.S. to form defensive military alliance * Needed a way to protect France from Germany
* France built a network of alliances in eastern Europe with Poland and the members if the so-called Little Entente (Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia) * The French Policy of Coercion (1919-1924)

* April 1921: the Allied Reparations Commission settled on a sum of 132 billion marks ($33 billion) for German reparations paid with annual reparations of 2.5billion (gold) marks * Threats to occupy the Ruhr valley, German’s chief industrial and mining center, made Germany pay its first reparation in 1912 * Announced that they were unable to pay the next year * French occupied Ruhr valley because they saw it as them breaking the treaty * Because they weren’t paying the reparation, French collected through operating the Ruhr mines and factories * The occupation of Ruhr harmed Germany and France * German government developed a system of passive resistance through printing more money intensifying the inflate-on pressures * German mark became useless: 1914 – a dollar was 4.2 marks; November 1, 1923 – 130 million to a dollar; 4.2 trillion to a dollar by end of November * Economic disasters led to Communist staged uprisings in October 1923 * Hitler’s Nazis attempted to take power in Munich in November * Pressure from United States and Great Britain against French policy forced the French to agree to a new conference of experts to reassess the reparations problem * 1924: the conference worked but France and Germany were opting to pursue a more conciliatory approach to each other * The Hopeful Years (1924-1929)

* New German government led by Gustav Stresemann (1878-1929): ended the policy of passive resistance and committed Germany to carry out most of the provisions of the of the Treaty of Versailles while seeking a new settlement of the reparation question * They also stabilized currency and ended the inflation through a temporary currency: the Rentenmark equaling 3 trillion old marks * August 1924: an international commission produced a new plan for reparations * Dawes Plan: it reduced reparations...
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