Ap Euro Final Exam Study Guide

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AP Euro Final Exam Study Guide

* Renaissance humanism
-the revival and study of Latin classics to learn what they reveal about human nature
-emphasized human beings, their achievements, interests, and capabilities
-viewed humanity from a strongly Christian perspective
* women in the Renaissance
-domestic, but some worked (paid less than men)
-status of upper-class women declined
* John Calvin “Institutes of the Christian Religion” (theme)
-belief in absolute sovereignty and omnipotence of God and the total weakness of humanity
-believed in predestination
-sought to systemize Protestant doctrine as the basis for a reformed Christianity

* Anabaptists (why did other religions oppose?)
-Why did the Anabaptists arouse so much hostility and fear especially as they were small in number and disorganized on a European scale? There are three main reasons. They held beliefs that were unacceptable to the majority, be they Catholic or Protestant. Some beliefs were offensive in a religiously sensitive era and certain behavior, such as polygamy, was frowned upon. Anabaptists also seemed to threaten social stability. If it is true that the Anabaptists came out of the Peasants’ Revolt of 1525, this event was linked to social upheaval and to the demand for social equality. It was an event that was also linked to Luther’s comment that “you can be a slave and a Christian”. The Anabaptists also held views that were a challenge to other Protestant beliefs. If the Anabaptists were allowed to spread it would have almost certainly been at the expense of Protestant faiths as opposed to Catholicism. Therefore the Anabaptists could be seen more as a threat to the Protestants and this resulted in them not being tolerated wherever they went.

*protestant princes in Germany (goals)
-recognition of Luteranism as a legitimate form of religion *religious tolerance during mid-1400’s (Jews and Muslims)
In spain
*Copernicus
-his theory:
~put stars at rest; nightly movement is simply due to the earth’s rotation
~universe = unthinkably large or infinite
~destroyed the idea that the earthly world is different than the heavenly one
~heliocentric earth
*Edict of Nantes
-gave Huguenots liberty of conscience and liberty of public worship
-paved the way for French absolutism by helping to restore internal peace in FR
(Henry IV)
-(Louis XIV) renounced the edict and made Protestantism illegal

*Economic decline of the Hanseatic League (factors)
-Louis XI used the revenues raised through economic activities and severe taxation to improve the army
-competition from merchants backed by larger territorial states *spread of humanism (factors)
-printing press
-growing economic prosperity

*John Locke
-Essay Concerning Human Understanding
~all ideas derived from experience
~tabula rasa(blank slate)
-2nd Treatise of Civil Government
~a gov’t that oversteps protecting peoples natural rights is a tyranny
-Christianity can’t be spread by force
*Jean-Jacques Rousseau
-believed in the creation of direct democracy
-The Social Contract
-romanticist
*Montesquieu
-Spirit of the Laws
~separation of powers
~checks and balances
-Persian Letters
-anti-slavery
*30 Year’s War
-began in Bohemia where a majority of people were Protestant. When Ferdinand was crowned, people were very mad because he was Catholic. When Matthias, the HRE, died, Ferdinand was elected Emperor. The Bohemians decided to elect Frederick (Calvinist), as their king. Years later Ferdinand confiscated defeated Protestant princes’ land in the north and wanted to forge a unified state under Habsburg control. Outlawed Calvinism and required Lutherans to turn over all property. Then the King of Sweden entered the war and triggered the 3rd phase. The final phase consisted of the French and Swedes fighting against the Austrian Habsburgs and their Spanish allies.

- Peace of Westphalia
~marked the end of the thirty...
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