AP French Revolution
The Crisis of the French Monarchy
1. Problem of debt- during this time the French monarchy was deeply in debt after the seven years war. Because France lost a majority of their colonies with the addition of a fragile economic system because of their lack of faith in banks it fell to the Royal government to tap into their own finances to solve the problem
The Monarchy seeks new taxes
2. Parlement and Parlements- there was a standoff between numerous royal ministers one after another that attempted to devise new taxation that would tap the wealth of the nobility but they were usually shot down by the Parliament of Paris and the provincial parliaments of King Louis XV and XVI who both lacked the character and the resolution to carry this dispute to a solution
3. Rene Maupeou- in 1770, King Louis XV appointed him as Chancellor. René was determined to break the parliaments and increased taxation on the nobility. When he abolished the parliaments and exiled their members to different parts of the country he then began an ambitious program of reform but after the death of King Louis XV, King Louis XVI destroyed all of his progress
4. Louis XV- died with ambitious plans that went to waste
5. Louis XVI- well-meaning but we and vacillating, stumbled from concession to concession until he finally lost all power to save his throne
6. Jacques Necker- became the new director general of finances and produced a report to the French public that said the financial situation was not so bad and was not to be feared. In his report he suggested that a large portion of Royal expenditures went to pensions for aristocrats. This Necker to soon leave office. His actions made it difficult for government officials to claim a need to raise taxes
7. Charles de Calonne- became the minister of finance and encouraged internal trade. He lowered taxes such as the Gabelle on salt, and to transform peasants services to money payments. Most importantly Calonne urged the introduction of a new land tax that would require payments from all landowners regardless of their social status. Calonne’s policies and the countries financial crisis made a new clash with the nobility unavoidable
8. Gabelle- a salt tax that was lowered
9. Assembly of Notables- made-up the upper ranks of the aristocracy and the church. The assembly refused Calonne plan and rather they suggested that the aristocracy be allowed a greater share in the direct government of the Kingdom.
10. Estates General- the assembly of Notables believed that they had no right to adjust the taxation level because only the estates general could do that. It had not met since 1614
11. De Breinne- Archbishop of Toulouse that took over the post of Calonne. He sought to impose a land tax but parliament claimed that only the estates general could enforce such a tax
12. Assembly of the Clergy- was dominated by aristocrats that not only refused De Breinne policies but also reduced its existing contribution
a. Don gratuity- tax paid by the Assembly of the Clergy
13. Give evidence to support the assertion that French aristocratic institutions had brought the French monarchy to its knees by 1788.- they refused to take initiative to any and all suggested resolutions to solve the national debt by blaming it on the Estates General
The Revolution of 1789May 1789- October , 1789(Phase 1) 14. Three Estates- The three Estates were the First Estate which included the Catholic Clergy, the Second Estate which consisted of the French Nobles and the Third Estate which was the commoners who represented 95 to 97% of the population.
15. Estates General- the French aristocracy forced Lewis to call the Estates general into session however their triumph proved to be quite brief. The calling of the Estates Gen. unleashed a clash between the Bourgeoisie and the aristocracy. All...