I. Rise of Moscow and Russia to 1689
A. Mongol Yoke and Rise
1. Mongol army conquered China and Russia under Genghis Khan, reaching all the way to Hungary before turning back. 2. Golden Horde used terror to force conquered peoples into submission. 3. Ruled the eastern slavs for 200 years
a. Built capital Saray on lower volga
b. Forced princes to pay tribute and give slaves. c. Khan was acknowledged as supreme ruler.
4. Princes became adept at serving the mongols through tax collection and servants, beginning with Alexander Nevsky. d. Princes put down popular uprisings
e. Moscow princes were rewarded with being hereditarily great. 5. Ivan III destroys his rivals in Novgorod, and consolidated Muscovite power. f. Ivan II felt strong enough in 1480 to cease acknowledging the Khan as supreme ruler. 6. Muscovite prince Legitimacy
g. Declared themselves autocrats, making them the sole source of power, taking over infrastructure. h. Claimed political and religious inheritance from Byzantine empire 1. Saw themselves as the true heirs to Caesars and Orthodox christianity after fall of constantinople. 2. Called themselves 3rd rome
3. Ivan III married daughter of last byzantine emperor, strengthened this claim. 7. Moscow inherited a tradition of ruling in cooperation with local elites, strengthened tsar's power claims. 8. Borders of Russia corresponded with borders of church, strengthened relationship with state and crown 9. Tsars ensured loyalty of elite by electing nobles loyal to him. i. Service nobility held office on the condition that they served in the army. B. Tsar and People to 1689
10. Developments turned chaotic with Ivan Iv (the terrible)...