Ap Euro All Notes

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Unit 1:
Renaissance and Reformation

The Renaissance
* Approximate dates: 1375 (death of Petrarch) – 1527 (sacking of Rome) * The Renaissance is highlighted by:
* a rediscovery of classical learning (Greek and Roman) * beginning of science
* increased diplomacy
* increased secularism
* new belief in the individual
* Secularism: never rejects Christianity, however, rejects Church’s domination and emphasizes man’s capabilities * Begins in Italy because of:
* geographical location, which allows for trade and passage of new ideas * advantages of city-states: no overseeing power allows intellectuals to embrace humanism * rich, such as Lorenzo de Medici of Florence, become patrons of the arts * Diplomacy: because of intense rivalries between city-states, the art of diplomacy is developed, including embassies in other cities * Condotteri: mercenaries, dangerous b/c they have no loyalties * Characteristics of the Renaissance:

* well-rounded (“Renaissance man”), able to do many things well * Castiglione’s Book of the Courtier
* individualism
* critical thinking
* Humanism
* the elevation of man and his position (unlike the Church) * rediscovery of ancient manuscripts
* Scholars such as Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio read and wrote Roman works in Latin * Greek wasn’t read until after fall of Constantinople (1453), when ancient Greek works began to come to Italy * civic humanism: responsibility to participate in government * critical thinking

Renaissance Art
* Elements of Renaissance Art:
* man/people are the measurement of all things
* paintings exist in the natural world and display human emotions * have a greater rational order and symmetry (linear perspective) * lines all meet perpendicular to the picture plane (vanishing point) * use of shading to enhance naturalness (chiaroscuro)

* Key Figures
* da Vinci: Mona Lisa, inventions
* Raphael: Madonnas, School of Athens
* Michelangelo: David, Sistine Chapel
End of the Renaissance
* Popes stop focusing on being patrons of the arts as they focus on spiritual matters during the Reformation * Milan invites French king Charles VIII into Italy against their enemy, Naples. The fighting inside of Italy breaks apart the fragile alliances between the city-states, and leads to endless warfare * New spice trade: goods begin to be traded overseas through Portugal, Spain, etc., not through Italy * Renaissance shifts to northern Europe

The Prince: Machiavelli (1532)
* Well-Committed Cruelty
* Own army – no mercenaries
* Separate those who you wrong
* Live in the places you conquer/make settlements instead of garrisons * Support the powers already in play, but don’t strengthen them * Don’t change customs or taxes
* Don’t be hated, but it’s better to be feared than loved * Generosity?
* Plan for the future
* Don’t bring in stronger foreign powers
* Learn the geography of places you conquer
* Fortify your own town
* Art of War
* Learn history
* Don’t avoid war
* Work hard during peace
* Lion and Fox
* Kind vs. Cruel
* Fear > Love
* Prince wins prestige by being a friend or enemy
* Choose ministers wisely
* Don’t be neutral to avoid war
* Executions over stealing
* Avoid flattery and choose people to tell truth
* Don’t fear conspirators unless you’re hated
* Don’t let your soldiers hate you
Renaissance Popes
* Alexander VI (1492-1503)
* Ruthless and corrupt
* Julius II (1503-1513)
* Excellent administrator, poor spirituality
* Leo X (1513-1523)
* Protestant Reformation begins
* Clement VII (1523-1534)
* More Reformation, Henry VIII
New Monarchs
1. have a military
2. centralized economy to get...
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