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AP Biology Unit Test Review Guide
Plants Obtaining and Transporting Nutrients

Pigments and photosynthesis
1. Distinguish between the strategies used by autotrophs and heterotrophs to obtain free energy for cellular processes. In other words, how and in what form does each capture and store that energy? 2. Explain how photosynthesis differs in eukaryotic organisms (with organelles such as chloroplasts) and in prokaryotic organisms (single-celled, no organelles). 3. How does a metabolic pathway such as photosynthesis suggest common ancestry? 4. Describe the basic structure and function of a chloroplast. 5. Describe the benefit of having several different types of pigment molecule present in a photosystem. 6. Distinguish between the absorption spectrum and action spectrum of photosynthetic organisms. 7. Explain how the process of photosynthesis acts to maintain order in an ecosystem. 8. Refine or revise the following visual representation to more accurately depict the light-dependent and light-independent (Calvin cycle) reactions of photosynthesis and the dependency of the processes on the capture and storage of free energy. (This question serves as your review of the light reactions and Calvin cycle…)

Translocation of Sugar
1. Describe how sucrose is moved through a plant’s body as proposed by the pressure-flow hypothesis. 2. Why must sucrose be actively loaded and unloaded to and from the sieve tubes? 3. Describe the interaction between phloem and xylem during the translocation of sucrose in a plant.

Obtaining and transporting water and dissolved minerals
1. Contrast terrestrial and aquatic plants with regards to the exchange of gases and maintenance of osmotic (water) balance. 2. Describe the movement of water through a plant as proposed by the transpiration-cohesion-tension theory. Create a diagram that includes water potential of various locations throughout the soil and plant. 3. List and explain how the...
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