Concepts & Terms
Macro & Local Levels of Social Analysis
Local Level: Analyzing relationships of a single society (village) (Trobriand) Macro Level: Analyzing relationships between societies and among global (colonialism, globalization, trade)
- The Practice of running an empire; one society subjugating/dominating other societies. -Refers to a policy of extending rule of a country or empire over foreign nations and of taking and holding foreign colonies. -Colonialism is a form of imperialism; there are also other forms that don't rely on direct governing
-Form of imperialism
-Practice of governing subordinate groups directly
=> What are the differences between imperialism and colonialism? 1. Colonialism is a term where a country conquers and rules over other regions. Imperialism means creating an empire, expanding into the neighbouring regions and expanding its dominance far. 2. In Colonialism, one can see great movement of people to the new territory and living as permanent settlers. Imperialism is just exercising power over the conquered regions either through sovereignty or indirect mechanisms of control. 3. Suppression is the basic idea in colonialism. A country tries to conquer and rule over other regions in the case of colonialism. Imperialism is different in the sense that an empire is created first, and it begins to spread its wings to other regions, and aiming to expand its dominance to neighboring states and regions.
3 Waves of European Colonial
Expansion (& Japan)
A) Discovering the New World: Spain, Portugal were Imperial powers in 16th century. 17th Century the Netherlands, Britain & France Imperial powers. B) Early Industrialism Capitalism: changes occurring in Britain in 18th Cent. New Economy taking hold on system - wide basis -> industrial capitalism. Looked to other colonies for needs. C)Late 19th Cent. Early 20th Cent. Industrial Capitalism: France, Germany, Western European nations, U.S, Japan (early 20th) Profit and the Colonies
What ways to make profit?
1)Direct Settlement: send people form markets/ start colonies.
Penal colonies: convicts sent overseas ex)Australia
2)Develop Resource Extraction: mining operations, plantations, cash crops (sugar cane, coffee, cotton, rubber) 3) Making Use of Labor of Local People
-Direct Coercion: Slave trade, Blackbirding (kindnapped someone and force them to sign contract and do work), Conscription (facing people to work on specific project) -Indirect: Taxes (use colonial power's currency), Dispossession of land (take away means of production, must work for wage)
Taking local peoples and turning them into slaves. Source of cheap labor to produce things you want cheaply. -Direct Coercion
-Kidnap and force local peoples into indentured servant agreement -Direct Coercion
-Colonial order of people to work on specific project for specific duration. ex) government documented order to work on drafting for war -Direct Coercion
Colonial Strategies of Accessing Labor
- Slave trade, blackbirding, conscription => direct coercion - Dispossessing people of their lands: people need land to produce things they need to survive; if take away land, can’t make ends meet. in order to survive, have to work on plantation.
Local Impacts of Colonialism
1)Depopulation: disease. ex) N. American and Disease, native American 2)Wars of Conquest & Subjugation Imperialism
Ex. Herero Revolt
3) Genocide: systemic killing one specific group
- colonizing power replaces the colonizer's culture with theirs, replace traditions, viewed as progress
Disease, Depopulation and Imperialism
Natives are not exposed to diseases that the European settlers have, so when they bring them over it hits the natives hard causing depopulation. -Example: Native American Indians and Disease: U.S/Canada during Columbus era populations went...