Anthropology 101 Final Review
Chapter 1: What is Anthropology?
* Phenotype: refers to an organism’s evident traits, its “manifest biology”—anatomy and physiology. Human display hundreds of evident (detectable) physical traits. They range from skin color, hair form, eye color, and facial features (which are visible ) to blood groups and enzyme production (which become evident through testing) Chapter 2: Culture
* Enculturation: is the process by which a child learns his or her culture. * Diffusion: borrowing of traits between cultures.
* Direct : when two cultures trade with, intermarry among and imposes its customs on the dominated group * Indirect: when items or traits move from groups A to group C via group B without any firsthand contact between A and C. * Acculturation: a second mechanism of cultural change is the exchange of cultural feathers that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact. The cultures of either or both groups may be changed by this contact. Pidgin, a mixed language that develops to ease communication between members of different cultures in contact is a example of acculturation. * Globalization: encompasses a series of processes, including diffusion, migration and acculturation, working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasing interlinked and mutually dependent. Promoting such linkages are economics and political forces, as well as modern systems of transportation and communication. The forces of globalization include international commerce and finance, travel and tourism, transnational migration, the media and various high-tech information flows. Chapter 3: Ethics and Methods
* Emic: how local people think
* Etic: scientific-oriented
Chapter 4: Language and communication
* Descriptive linguistics: involves several interrelated areas of analysis: phonology, morphology, lexicon, and syntax, * Phonology: the study of speech sounds, considers which sounds are present and significant in a given language. * Morphology: studies the forms in which sound combine to form morphemes-words and their meaningful parts. * Lexicon: a dictionary containing all its morphemes and their meanings * Syntax: refers to the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences. * Focal vocabulary: such specialized sets of terms and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity) are known as focal vocabulary. * Diglossia: applies to “high” and “low” variants of the same language, for example, in German and Flemish (spoken in Belgium). People employ the high variant at universities and in writing, professions and the mass media. They use the low variant for ordinary conversation with family members and friends. ---Dialect switches between one language. * Daughter language: languages descend from the same parent language and that have been changing separately for hundreds or even thousands of year. * Protolanguage: Original language which daughter language derive from. For example, Romance languages such as French and Spanish are daughters languages of Latin, their common protolanguage. German, English, Dutch and the Scandinavian languages are daughter language of Proto-Germanic. The romance languages and the Germanic languages all belong to the Indo-European language family. Their common protolanguage is called Proto-Indo-European, PIE. Chapter 5: Making a living
* Horticulture: is cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital and machinery. Horticulturalists use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow their crops. Involve slash- and burn techniques. * Agriculture: requires more labor than horticulture does because it uses land intensively and continuously. The greater labor demands associated with agriculture reflect its use of domesticated...
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