Ant 3620 Notes

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Biological and Physical Anthropology
Language evolution as part of human evolution
Language and brain: studies of neurolinguistics and perception and how language is changed through strokes Medical studies of how diseases are categorized and treated

Archaeology
“glottochronology” and “lexicostatistics”: how languages are related based on their shared vocabulary linguistic archaeology: how particular languages change over time, such as North American Indian Languages The archaeology of symbolic forms and categories

Ethnohistory
To do with how people conceive one another; how they’re language relates one another

Cultural Anthropology
How to do better interviews during fieldwork
Theories of human communities based on their language
Studies of how people perceive the world
Religion and performance
Ehtnomedicine and ethnobotany
Cold and hot
Popular medicinal remedy called “vapor rüb”
Decision making
International commerce, communication

Franz Boas – founder of modern anthropology
Cultural relativism
Beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture; There is no such thing as cultural evolution
Race does not predetermine culture
Emphasized fieldwork based on rigorous scientific methodology

Boas’ reasons for studying language and culture in 1911:
1. It is best not to work through interpreters
2. Language is an ethnographic fact
3. Language is a window into the functioning of the shared consciousness of a culture 4. Language is a regular, patterned, and scientifically predictable part of behavior

Language and Culture by any other name…
Linguistic anthropology
Anthropological linguistics
Linguistics
Sociolinguistics
Ethnolinguistics

Language and Culture v. Linguistics
Linguistics: concern for language “as an object of study,” something abstracted from everyday life L & C: concern for the relationship between language, thought, society, and culture

Assumptions of Language and Culture
How does language affect society and how does society affect language? Culture is embedded in language
Language functions to hold society and culture together

Language and Culture
Language is perceived as a vehicle for culture. That is, the language we speak is assumed to represent an adherence to particular cultural values and beliefs. As one example, francophones in Canada, especially Quebec, place an extraordinary value on the use of French in daily life The Ngabe publicly worry that the loss of Ngabere will have similar affects on Ngabe culture Americans generally worry that the penetration of Spanish into public discourse will erode American culture and threaten a unique way of life Sometimes we assume that language and culture is a one to one relationship – they perfectly reflect each other.

Duranti’s 1st Paradigm: Emphasis on Linguistics
Linguistics: concern for language “as an object of study,” something abstracted from everyday life. Anthropological linguistics : documentation, description, and classification of indigenous languages (salvage anthropology) Descriptive linguistics: construction of grammars and lexicons for unstudied language (phonology, morphology, syntax)

Duranti’s 2nd Paradigm: Linguistics with Anthropology
Ethnolinguistics: engaging in daily life of others to understand their point of view; what does one need to know to function in another culture Sociolinguistics: study of language use across speakers and activities to discover patterns of linguistic variation

Duranti’s 3rd Paradigm: Combination of Previous Paradigms
Linguistic anthropology – concern for the relationship between language, thought, society, and culture Language and culture – the use of linguistic practices to document and analyze the reproduction of

Glottochronology: “archaeology of languages”
Part of lexicostatistics that deals with the chronological relationship of languages Swadesh
T = [ln(c)]/-L
T: a given period of time from one stage of the language...
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