Animal Diversity Study Guide

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Animals
* Animals
* Multicellular
* Heterotrophic
* Eukaryotic
* Develop from embryonic layers

* Nutritional mode
* Eat/ingest other living things or non living things
* Ingest food and use enzymes in the body to digest it

* Cell Structure and Specialization
* Eukaryotic and multicellular
* Lack cell walls but held together by collagen
* Muscle and nerve cells (only in animals)
* Helps to move and conduct nerve impulses underlying the major adaptation of animals

* Reproduction and Development
* Sexually and asexually
* Diploid is dominant stage
* Flagellated sperm nonmotile egg
* 2n zygote undergoes cleavage
* Cell divisions without growth between cycles
* Stages:
* blastula- cleavage leads to formation of hollow ball * Gastrulation – layers of embryonic tissue develop into adult body parts * Larva- only some animals, sexually immature and have different features, habitat and food source that adult and undergo metamorphosis to become adult

* History of animals
* 99% of animals are extinct
* Neoproterozoic era:
* many sponges or related to cnidarians
* Paleozoic Era:
* about half of all extant animals first arthropods, chlorates, and echinoderms * Hard mineralized skeleton
* predator prey relationships emerged
* locomotion and protection
* vertebrates were top predators of marine food web * arthropods adapted to land two groups still survive: amphibians and amniotes * Mesozoic
* No fundamentally new groups emerged
* Some animals returned to water others developed wings * Small dinosaurs
* Cenozoic era
* Mass extinction of terrestrial and marine global climate gradually cooled

* Body plans
* Symmetry
* Radial: flower pot, have top and bottom, no front back or side * Dorsal: top
* Ventral: bottom
* Anterior: front
* Posterior: back
* Cephalization: has a central nervous system

* Tissues
* Endoderm: innermost germ layer, lines the developing digestive tube * Archenteron: gives rise to the lining of the digestive tract and organs such as the liver and lungs * Diploblastic: animals that have only two germ layers, include cnidarians and comb jellies * Mesoderm: third germ layer between ectoderm, endoderm, muscles and other organs between digestive tract and outer coverings of the animal * Triploblastic: three germ layers, bilateral animals

* Body cavities
* Fluid or air filled space separating digestive tract form the outer body wall * Coelom: forms from mesoderm, inner and outer layers of tissue that surround the cavity and connect dorsally and ventrally * Pseudocoelomate: cavity of mesoderm and exoderm * Acoelomate: lack body cavity

* Protostome and deuterostome development
* Cleavage
* Spiral: planes of cells division is diagonal to vertical axis of embryo * Determinate: determines the fate of each embryonic cell very early * Radial: parallel or perpendicular to the ventricle axis of the embryo * Interminant: each cell could potentially produce another embryo * Coelom formation

* Protostome: gut forms, solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom * Deuterostome: mesoderm buds from wall of archenteron and the cavity becomes coelom * Fate of blastopore

* Indentation that during gastrulation leads to formation of archenteron * In protostome: mouth first
* In deuterostome: anus first

* All animals share common ancestor
* Sponges are basal animals
* Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true...
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