Animal Behavior Final Notes

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1. What is light intensity? What is hue? What is chroma? Use the male cardinal as an example for each concept. Why is chroma especially important to the male cardinal? a. Intensity: how bright, how many photons hitting it hue: what domain of frequency chroma: how "pure" or saturated color is. Male cardinals use light to attract females 2. A colleague sends you a newly discovered marine fish species that is bright yellow with red accents. However, he forgot to tell you where the species was discovered. Based on its coloration alone, what type of ocean habitat would you expect this fish to live and why? b. You would expect the color of the ocean to be contrasting to the fish's colors. So you would find it in very blue/green waters like reefs 3. What property of light allows the lens in animal eyes to work? Give the definition of the property and an animal example. c. Light REFRACTION allows lenses to reflect the light in the back of the eye. Refraction is the bending of light as it passes through something with a different speed of light. Cats 4. You are a geneticist working with a team of other scientists to engineer an animal optimized for hunting at night (it is never active during the day). You have been tasked with creating the perfect eyes for this situation. What characteristics should you include to make the animal’s eyes optimal for this task? What are the drawbacks about this eye that the team should know about? d. Big eyes, MONOCHROMAT, TAPETUM, AND MORE RODS THAN CONES. Don't need split pupil because it doesn't hunt in the sun and will have less temporal/spatial activity 5. Another scientist on the team is working on the animal’s communication methods. If he needs the animal’s message to persist in the environment for a long time, what strategy should he pursue? What if he only cares about the message arriving as fast as it can? e. If he wants a message to persist for a long time, , the animal should use pheromones to communicate the message especially heavy molecules. If he cares about the message arriving as fast as it can, the animal should use light 6. What is the Q/K ratio (define each term)? What is the Q/K ratio for a trail pheromone? Sex pheromone? Alarm pheromone? Explain why the Q/K ratio is different for each of these. f. Q is the number of molecules emitted by a sender and k is the response threshold, the number of molecules needed to be detected by receiver. Trail = 10^1 for precision, alarm = 10^3 to 5 because want small number to know because if too big, can't see the alarm origin or 5 sex= 10^10 to 12 because you want the largest radius to attract any of the opposite sex 7. These questions pertain to the Capaldi et al. (1999) paper we discussed in section about spatial learning. What part of the brain is associated with spatial learning for vertebrates? Invertebrates? Name an animal that we commonly use for studying spatial learning. g. Vertebrates: hippocampus invertebrates: mushroom bodies. We study rats a lot. 8. There are two main groups of orcas off the coast of Canada that Mike Bigg’s studied, dent whales and transient whales. List as many differences and defining characteristics of each group as you can. h. Resident: round dorsal fins, large group, metriarchy where young stay with mother, vocalize frequently, only eats salmon, two groups (northern southern). i. Transient: sharper dorsal fins, small groups, passive listeners, travel, eat marine mammals. 9. Animals can modify their sounds according to the environment in which they live. Inside a forest, what kind of trill rate would a sparrow use? If it moved to a grassland environment how would the trill rate change? Why does the sparrow change the trill rate between these two environments? j. In a forest, because there's many things to echo sound, the sparrow should use a lower trill rate so the message would be less confused. In...
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