Anatomy & Physiology Study Guide

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CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

OBJECTIVES

1.Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.

2.List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level.

3.List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system.

4.Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things.

5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life.

6. Define the term homeostasis, and explain how a homeostatic mechanism is regulated (i.e. negative feedback) by using an example we discussed in class.

7. Demonstrate what is meant by "anatomical position".

8.Define various directional terms (i.e. superior, inferior, etc.), and compare different body parts using these terms (i.e. the elbow is proximal to the wrist).

9. List both anterior and posterior anatomical landmarks (i.e. orbital, inguinal, etc.).

10.Name the three major body sections (planes, cuts), and describe how each would be accomplished.

11.Designate the five major human body cavities and name the organs within each on a human diagram.

CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

OBJECTIVES

12.Describe the anatomical importance of the diaphragm muscle and make sure you can spell it correctly!!!!

13.Describe the nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity and the four quadrants of the abdominopelvic cavity and list the major organs found within each.

14.Distinguish between visceral and parietal serous membranes, and differentiate between pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal varieties.

15.Name the function of serous fluid.
CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY

I. INTRODUCTION

A.DEFINITIONS:

1.ANATOMY = the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts.

a. histology = the microscopic study of tissues. b. cytology = the microscopic study of cells.

2. PHYSIOLOGY = the study of the function of body parts.

B. Life Processes distinguish living from non-living things.

1. Ten processes:See Table 1.1, page 5.

a.Movement
b. Responsiveness
c. Growth
d. Reproduction
e. Respiration
f. Digestion
g. Absorption
h. Circulation
i. Assimilation
j. Excretion

2.Environmental Needs:See Table 1.2, page 6.

a. nutrients for energy
b. oxygen for cellular respiration
c. water for most metabolic reactions, lubrication, etc. d. heat to maintain 37oC body temp, enzyme action
e. pressure for breathing and filtering blood through kidneys. CHAPTER 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HUMAN BODY

I. INTRODUCTION

E. HOMEOSTASIS See Fig 1.4 and Fig 1.5, page 7.

1.Definition = the tendency of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment.

2.All life processes and metabolic reactions work to maintain homeostasis.

3.Most homeostatic mechanisms are regulated by negative feedback (see example below).

4. Example = maintenance of body temperature at 98.6oF/37oC.

Sweating;
Dilation of superficial blood vessels; Increase in heart rate; Increase in breathing rate.

Stress: ↑ body temperature↓ body temp

Normal body Temperature
37oC...
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