Anatomy Muscle Study Guide

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Muscle Study Guide

Microscopic Anatomy Of A Muscle:
Big(-); Muscle, fascicle, muscle fiber, myofibril, myofilaments; Small(+)

Endomysium: Thin connective tissue investing each muscle cell. Epimysium: Connective tissue ensheathing the entire muscle.
Fascicle: A discrete bundle of muscle cells.
Fiber: A muscle cell.
Myofilament: Actin- or myosin- containing structure.
Perimysium: Connective tissue surrounding a fascicle.
Sarcolemma: Plasma membrane of the muscle cell.
Sarcomere: Contractile unit of a muscle.
Tendon: Cordlike extension of connective tissue beyond the muscle, serving to attach it to the bone. 7 Golden Rules Of Muscle Activity:
1. Get smaller as they contract.
2. Cross at least one joint.
3. Bulk of the muscle lies proximal to the joint crossed. 4. Have insertion and origin.
5. During contraction the insertion moves toward the origin. 6. Muscles only pull; they never push.
7. Muscles work in pairs.

Muscle Nomenclature:
• Direction of fibers
o Rectus (straight); Transverse (across); Oblique (diagonal); Orbicularis (circular) • Location of muscle
o Pectoralis (chest); Gluteus (butt); Brachii (arm); Supra- (above); Sub- (under); Laterallis (lateral to); Infra- (below) • Attachment site
o Sternocleidomastoideus (sternum & clavicle, insertion on the mastoid process) o Brachioradialis (origin on brachium/arm, insertion on the radius) • Shape
o Deltoid
o Trapezius
• Action
o Adductor (adduct)
o Abductor (abduct a structure)
o Flexor (flex)
o Extensor (extend)
o Levator (lift/elevate)
o Masseter (chewer)
Types Of Muscle:
• Elongated cells.
• Multiple peripheral nuclei.
• Visible striations.
• Voluntary movement.
• Branching cell.
• Single central nucleus.
• Visible striations.
• Involuntary movement.
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