Anatomy and Physiology Study Guide

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Study Guide for KIN 272
Blood and Blood Vessels
Study Guide:
1. Describe the 6 levels of structural organization.
a. Chemical – atoms combine to form molecules
b. Organelle – all cells of humans and other complex organisms contain structures c. Cells – the smallest units of all living things
d. Tissues – consist of groups of similar cells that have a common function e. Organ – a structure that is composed of two or more tissue types and performs a specific function for the body f. Organ System – a group of organs that cooperate to accomplish a common purpose 2. True or false: arteries always contain oxygen-rich blood. g. true

3. Is blood a tissue?
h. Blood is considered a connective tissue because blood contains the same structures as those in other connective tissues 4. What are the components of whole blood—the three layers in a centrifuged sample of blood? i. Whole blood is 55% Plasma, 45% Erythrocytes, and < 1% leukocytes and platelets 5. Formed elements include erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. 6. What does hematocrit mean and why do we measure it?

j. Hematocrit is the percentage of red blood cells in a sample of whole blood. It is measured as a mean od diagnosing anemia, polycythemia and other conditions 7. Describe the physical characteristics of blood, including taste, texture, color, pH, temperature, and percentage of body weight. k. Sticky opaque fluid w/ metallic taste l. Scarlet = O2 rich dark red = O2 poor

m. pH ranges from 7.35-7.45
n. 38 degrees Celsius
o. 8% of body weight
8. How many liters of blood does the average male have? Average female? p. Average blood volume: Men - 5 ½ liters, Women - 5 liters 9. What are the functions of blood?
q. Distribution of:
i. oxygen and nutrients
ii. metabolic waste
iii. hormones
r. Regulation of:
iv. temperature
v. pH
vi. fluid volume
s. Protection from:
vii. Blood loss
viii. Circulation (homeostasis)
10. What kind of solutes can be found in blood plasma?
t. Proteins
ix. Albumin, globulins, clotting proteins, and others 1. osmotic pressure, transport proteins
u. Non-protein nitrogenous substances
x. Lactic acid, urea, creatine
v. Organic nutrients
xi. Carbohydrates, amino acids, fats
w. Electrolytes
xii. Na+, K+, Ca2+ Cl-, HCO3-
2. Osmotic pressure and pH
x. Respiratory gases
xiii. O2 and CO2
11. Which of the formed elements are complete cells?
y. leukocytes
12. What shape do erythrocytes form?
z. Biconcave discs
13. Describe three ways in which erythrocyte structure drives its function. {. Biconcave discs = more surface area to carry O2 and CO2 |. 97% hemoglobin
}. Lack mitochondria and use non0oxidative metabolism so they don’t consume any of the O2 they are carrying 14. What is hemoglobin? Describe its structure and function. ~. Hemoglobin = protein found in RBCs necessary for the transport of O2 from the lungs to the cells of the body xiv. Consists of two alpha and two beta polypeptide chains each bound to a heme group. xv. Each heme group contains iron Fe2+ xvi. Each Hb (hemoglobin) can transport 4 O2 15. How many Hb molecules are there in a single RBC? How many oxygen molecules can a single RBC carry at once? . A single RBC contains about 250 million HB = about 1 billion O2 molecules 16. What is MCHC? What is the...
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