Anatomy and Physiology Objectives

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Anatomy and Physiology Chapter Objectives
Chapter 1: Introduction to the Human Body Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Chapter 6: The Skeletal System - Bone Tissue Chapter 7: The Skeletal System - The Axial Skeleton Chapter 8: The Skeletal System - The Appendicular Skeleton Chapter 9: Joints Chapter 10: Muscular Tissue Chapter 11: The Muscular System Chapter 12: Nervous Tissue Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative System Chapter 17: The Special Senses Chapter 18: The Endocrine System Chapter 19: The Cardiovascular System - The Blood Chapter 20: The Cardiovascular System - The Heart Chapter 21: The Cardiovascular System - Blood Vessels and Hemodynamics Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 23: The Respiratory System Chapter 24: The Respiratory System Chapter 25: Metabolism and Nutrition Chapter 26: The Urinary System Chapter 27: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Homeostasis Chapter 28: The Reproductive System Chapter 29: Development and Inheritance 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 14

Chapter 1: Introduction to the Human Body
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Define anatomy and physiology, and name several subspecialties of these sciences. Describe the levels of structural organization that make up the human body. List the 11 systems of the human body, representative organs present in each, and their general functions. Define the important life processes of the human body. Define homeostasis and explain its relationship to interstitial fluid. Define homeostasis. Describe the components of a feedback system. Contrast the operation of negative and positive feedback systems. Explain how homeostatic imbalances are related to disorders. Describe the anatomical position. Relate the common names to the corresponding anatomical descriptive terms for various regions of the human body. Define the anatomical planes, sections, and directional terms used to describe the human body. Outline the major body cavities, the organs they contain, and their associated linings.

Chapter 2: The Chemical Level of Organization
• • • • • • • • • • • • • Identify the main chemical elements of the human body. Describe the structures of atoms, ions, molecules, free radicals, and compounds. Define a chemical reaction. Describe the various forms of energy. Compare exergonic and endergonic chemical reactions. Describe the role of activation energy and catalysts in chemical reactions. Describe synthesis, decomposition, exchange, and reversible reactions. Describe the properties of water and those of inorganic acids, bases, and salts. Distinguish among solutions, colloids, and suspensions. Define pH and explain the role of buffer systems in homeostasis. Describe the functional groups of organic molecules. Identify the building blocks and functions of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Describe the structure and functions of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization
• • • • Describe the structure and functions of the plasma membrane. Explain the concept of selective permeability. Define the electrochemical gradient and describe its components. Describe the processes that transport substances across the plasma membrane.

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Describe the structure and function of cytoplasm, cytosol, and organelles. Describe the structure and function of the nucleus. Describe the sequence of events in protein synthesis. Discuss the stages, events, and significance of somatic and reproductive cell division. Describe the signals that induce somatic cell division. Describe how cells differ in size and shape.

Chapter 4: The Tissue Level of Organization
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