Anatomy 2 Exam Study Guide

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Anatomy Study Guide
Exam 1
Blood

Blood components: know the relative amounts of the components and the functions of each component
Formed elements:
1. Erythrocytes (red blood cells): involved in carrying oxygen 2. Leukocytes (white blood cells): involved in immune system - fight off infections 3. Platelets: involved in blood clotting

Plasma: (liquid part of blood – dilute solution of salts, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, urea, proteins, and fats * 90% water
* 7% protein
* 3% other
Hematocrit: know an approximate normal value, differences between men & women, effects of changes in Hct on viscosity & flow
Hematocrit: the percent of red cells
* Normal Hct is about 45%
* Men: 45% to 52% / Female: 37% to 48%
Serum vs. Plasma
* Serum: plasma with the clotting protein (fibrinogen removed) * These two are essentially identical to plasma except for the absence of the clotting protein fibrinogen Hemolysis: where does it occur, what are the breakdown products, how are heme and iron transported * Hemolysis: the rupture or destruction of red blood cells * Occurs:

White Blood Cells: know the different types, functions of each type, relative amounts of each type, approx.. normal WBC count, specific implications of abnormal differential WBC counts * Types:

1. Granulocytes
a. Neutrophils (65%):
- Most common (abundant) of all WBC
-Elevated in bacterial infections
- Phagocytic (absorbs waste material/foreign objects)
b. Eosinophils (3%):
* Red stained cytoplasm
* Increase in allergic reaction
c. Basophils (1%):
* Secretes heparin, an anticoagulant
* Secretes histamine, a vasodilator
2. Agranulocytes
a. Lymphocytes (25%):
* Smallest of all WBC
* Either B cell, T cell or NK lymphocyte
* Specific immunity (recognition of antigens)
b. Monocytes (6%):
* Largest cell
* Called macrophage when outside the bloodstream
* Phagocytic
* Presents Antigen to lymphocytes
Platelets: know the basic function, how they are activated, what happens with activation * When the endothelial lining is disrupted platelets are exposed to collagen fibers * This causes platelets to become activated

* They become sticky and adhere to exposed connective tissue * Activated platelets secrete many substances to promote vasospasm, to activate more platelets, and to initiate coagulation - this results in platelet plug formation * Platelets also stick to each other (aggregation)

Hemostasis: know the steps leading to hemostasis, know the difference between the intrinsic and extrinsic pathway of coagulation, know the steps in the common pathway that lead to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin

Steps:
1. Vascular Spasm: a sudden, brief tightening of the muscle cells inside the walls of a blood vessel. 2. Platelet Plug Formation
3. Coagulation (blood clotting)
Intrinsic vs. extrinsic pathways:
1. Extrinsic mechanism: triggered by tissue damage outside of the blood vessel 2. Intrinsic mechanism: triggered by elements that lie within the blood inself Blood Types:
ABO:
-. Antigens: protein marker on surface of RBC
- Antibody: protein produced by immune system to destroy or mark for destruction by other cells of foreign objects
- Transfusions:
- Packed red blood cells are usually used
- Donor RBC’s are mixed with the recipient plasma
- Type O neg is the universal donor
- Type AB is the universal recipient
Rh: understand hemolytic disease of the newborn
* Rh- mom has Rh+ baby
* Blood mixes at birth, during delivery
* Rh Ag from the baby gets into mother’s blood, causing her to make Rh Ab * If mom has 2nd Rh+ child the Rh Ab crosses the placenta, causing HDN Heart

Heart anatomy: know the chambers, valves, and great vessels and the order of blood flow through these structures
Chambers:
1. Right atrium
2. Right ventricle
3. Left atrium...
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