Anatomoy Notes

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Anatomy and Physiology I
Exam Review, Units 1-4

1. The smallest structures that biologists consider being alive are

A. organisms.

B. organs.

C. macromolecules.

D. cells.

E. organelles.
Review levels of organization.

2.Cells contain smaller structures called ___ that carry out their metabolic functions. Review the structure of the cell and know the functions of each of the organelles.

3.Many physiological processes are controlled by self-correcting ___ loops.

4.___ is the body's tendency to maintain stable internal conditions. Make sure you review homeostasis, positive feedback loops, and negative feedback loops.

5.All chemical change in the body is collectively called ___. Look at the chemistry worksheet. Know the terms listed in the worksheet and their definitions.

6.Anabolism occurs when complex molecules are made from simpler ones. True False

7. Two groups of people were tested to determine whether garlic lowers blood cholesterol levels. One group was given 800 mg of garlic powder daily for four months and exhibited an average 12% reduction in the blood cholesterol. The other group was not given any garlic and after four months averaged a 3% reduction in cholesterol. The group that was not given the garlic was the

A. control group.

B. test group.

C. placebo group.

D. peer group.

E. double-blind group.
Review the scientific method.

8.Any chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not consumed by it is called a/an___ or _____.

9. Fats are digested by enzymes called

A. lipases.

B. proteases.

C. glycolases.

D. carboxylases.

E. sterolases.

Review the action of enzymes, method of naming enzymes, and the structure of a protein.

10. A positively charged ion is known as a(n) __________.

11. The chemical symbol for potassium is _________.

12. Consider sodium, which has an atomic number of 11 and an atomic mass of 23. How many outer or valence electrons does it have?

A. 1

B. 2

C. 8

D. 11

E. 23

13. The sharing of electrons in their outer orbital describes what type of chemical bond? Know how ionic, covalent, and hydrogen bonds are made.

14. What is the fate of oil droplets in water? Why?

A. It will dissolve in the water because oil is hydrophilic.

B. It will stay as separate oil drops because oil is hydrophilic.

C. It will become more hydrophilic and partially dissolve in water.

D. It will merge together to form one large oil drop because oil is hydrophobic.

E. It will merge together to from one large oil drop because oil is hydrophilic. Review the structure of the phospholipid bilayer.

15. The polysaccharide that is stored in humans in the liver and muscle is called _____ and is made up of the monomer or monosaccharide called ______.

A. cellulose; glucose

B. starch; glucose

C. lactose; glucose + galactose

D. glycogen; glucose

E. sucrose; glucose + fructose
Review the structure of carbohydrates, lipids (phospholipids), proteins, and nuclei acids.

16. Where is most of the ATP made within the cell? In the

A. cytoplasm.

B. mitochondria.

C. lysosomes.

D. vacuoles.

E. Golgi apparatus.
Review the function of the organelles within the cell.

17. The plasma membrane is said to be ___ because it allows some substances to pass through but excludes others. Know the make-up of the plasma membrane.

18. The plasma membrane is composed mainly of protein and ___ molecules.

19. Channel proteins that can open or close their pores in response to changes in voltage across the plasma membrane are called ___.

20. Programmed cell death is carried out by a process called apoptosis. True False

21. Cells of the small intestine and kidney tubule have a "brush border" composed of ___, which are cell extensions that increase surface area.

22. What function would immediately cease if the ribosomes of a cell were...
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