Analytical Chemistry Intro

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___________________________________________________________________________ UNIT 1: Assigned Reading: BASIC ELEMENTS OF ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Chapt. 1 and 8 Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry, 8th edition

INTRODUCTION  Analytical Chemistry – that branch of chemistry which is concerned with the theory and practice of methods used to determine the composition (quantity and nature) of matter.  Analytical Chemistry involves separating, identifying, called qualitative analysis; and determining the relative amounts (concentration) of the components in a sample of   matter, called quantitative analysis. There are several different areas of analytical chemistry, namely: environmental analysis, forensic analysis, clinical analysis, bioanalytical analysis, and pharmaceutical analysis. This introductory analytical chemistry module is done by students pursuing different fields of study, including industrial and analytical chemistry, environmental science, forensic chemistry, pharmacy, medical technology and chemical engineering. Therefore, this module we introduce the theory and application of analytical chemistry to these various fields of study.  Analytical Chemistry would answer the question “how much dioxin is in a soil sample” or “how much hydrocortisone is in a topical preparation used for eczema treatment” or “how much mercury is in a blood sample” and an analytical chemist would have an interest in the methods and techniques involved in answering this question. These persons would need to have a deep knowledge of wide areas in chemistry, statistics, perhaps geology, anatomy and physiology, etc. An analytical chemist is therefore one who utilises analytical thought processes, in conjunction with specialized knowledge of analytical measurement techniques, methodology, and chemistry to experimentally characterise chemical systems in quantitative and qualitative terms. Sub-groups include the forensic analytical chemist, the pharmaceutical analytical chemist, the medical technologist and others, who could all utilise the principles and methods you will learn more about this semester. Roles of the Analytical Chemist in Industry  To the average student and more-so an outsider, the analytical chemist is one who simply receives samples, execute measurements and report results (H.A. Laitenien, Anal Chem., 1979, 51, 1601).  The analytical chemist obviously does more than that since that person is involved in method and technique development, problem solving, consultancy, and applying standard methods. Scope and Application to Science & Technology  In any industrialized society, the analytical chemist has a very vital role to perform. Most manufacturing industries rely upon both quantitative and qualitative chemical analyses to

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ensure that the raw materials are of acceptable specifications as well as to check the quality of the final product. A list of some of the areas where a person who is trained in analytical chemistry can be found follows. Hospitals:  That chemist can be used to assist in the diagnosis of illness and in monitoring the condition of patients (clinical chemist). For example, the presence of a measurable amount of bilirubin and more than 12 mg % of alkaline phosphatase (an enzyme) in a patient’s blood serum is indicative of an impaired liver function. Also, Na +/K+ concentration in serum can be measured by flame emission spectroscopy.  Detection and quantitation of poisonous and banned substances is also done.

Agriculture:  Monitor nutrient levels in soils to aid farmers – the nature and level of fertilizer application is based on information obtained by analysis of the soil to determine its content of the essential plant nutrients, N, P, and K and of trace elements like Mn, Co, Fe which are needed for healthy plant growth. Therefore,...
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