1. Features that identify a society as "civilized"
a. Agriculture (irrigation) and breeding of animals = surplus food (goats, peig, cattle, sheep). Wheat, barley, rice, and maize.(Sci&Tech- polish stone tools. Ex: stone sickles) b. Cities: large apartment settlements= standard architecture & surplus manpower c. Writing (“gifts of the gods”)= records. Pictograph, ideogram, cuneiform. d. Institutions for centralized & inherited power
. - Priesthood for centralized sacred ritual
. - Kingship for centralized political and social structure (Paraoh= kings in Egypt) .
2. Geographical areas of early civilizations
3. Ages of early Greek mythology to Ovid ( Poet of Metamorphoses) a. Origin of humans: sacred clay (wise and rulers) blood of titans (murderous and criminals), and stones(endurance) b. 4 ages as decline: Golden (peace), Silver (seasons &farming), Bronze (war), Iron (mining, deforestation, crime).
4. Dominant and alternate cultural themes in the Iliad
Audience: upper-class men
Purpose: cultural propaganda. Greek Heros= models of courage & skill to men (what to be) & women (what to look for- sense of security). a. Dominant Theme: warrior code of personal honor and glory b. Contrasting themes: Family principle, simple country life vs. war, admiration of enemies.
5. Literary works by Homer
Blind poet Homer - represents the culmination of a long and vigorous tradition in which oral recitation—possibly to instrumental accompaniment—was a popular kind of entertainment. Iliad, Odyssey.
6. Major column types in Greek architecture (know the parts) a. Doric: Plan projects strength, power. Useful for king or state intimidate? Temple to powerful gods. b. Ionic: elegant, sophisticated. Useful for gods and people of wisdom. Libraries. c. Corinthian: more sophisticated. Projects wealth and power that comes with it. Useful to imperial Rome to intimidate and amaze. Makes the emperor or state look all powerful, even if they aren’t! [pic]
7. Major parts of architectural buildings on the Acropolis of Athens
(City on the hills. Ex: Propyleia & Parthenon)
a. Propylaia: Monumental entrance as the gate/threshold into the sacred hill. b. Athena Nike: shrine to Athena as goddess of victory. Guardian of the hill. c. Parthenon (the Virgin)
- East Pediment (front): birth of Athena. Born from the head of Zeus= intuition. Feminine principle of wisdom, sacred bird is the one. - West Pediment (back): Competition between Athena & Poseidon for Athens. Ancestors chose Athen’s gift for the olive tree= they preferred to war. Athenians all sheer this wisdom and desire for peace. - The metopes (framed carvings on each side): the victories over the Amazons, centaurs, giants, and Trojans/Persians = justice prevails over brute force, aggression. 8. Major philosophers of the Greek Classical and Hellenistic periods Greek Classical:
a. Moral: Socrates
- Dialectic Method= critical approach. Question & answer search for “Truth” - “Knowledge is virtue” & “to know the good is to do the good.” - “The unexamined life is not worth living”
- “Produced skeptics (only believe what is absolutely certain) & agnostics (don’t believe what is not known for certain). b. Social: Plato
- Student of Socrates; Founded Academy in Athens, 387 B.C. - Theory of Forms: where is “Truth”:
← Above: perfect world of forms: originals, absolute, uncanning, state ← Below: imperfect world of matter: copies, changing, opinions. - Theory of Knowledge (How to reach the world of forms?): Upper Level: Truth
Level 4: Knowledge= certainties
Level 3: Thinking= math geometry abstracts
Lower Levels: Opinions...