Concept 12.1 : There are powerful methods for sequencing genomes and analyzing gene products.
• The goal of sequencing genomes is to identify mutations in DNA and relate them to phenotypes (ie. Understanding genetics)
• Human Genome Project- 13 year project, used chemically modified nucleotides
• Next generation DNA sequencing- uses miniaturization techniques 1st developed for electronics industry, as well as principles of DNA replication and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
• Massivley Parallel Sequencing- In next generation sequencing, when millions of fragments are sequenced at the same time
• Functional genomics- biologists use sequence information to identify functions of various parts of genomes.
• Open reading frames- part of genome; coding regions of genes
• Amino acid sequences of proties- deduced DNA sequences of open reading frames by applying genetic code.
• Regulatory sequences- promoters and terminators for transcription
• RNA genes- including rRNA, tRNA,small nuclear RNA, and microRNA genes.
• Other non coding sequences- classified into various categories, including centrometric and telemetric regions, transposons, repetitive sequences
• Comparative genomics- comparison of a newly sequenced genome with sequences from other organisms
*Phenotypes can be analyzed using proteomics and metabolomics
• Genetic determinism- idea that person’s phenotype is determined solely by their genotype.
• Proteomics- has gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyzes proteins. Seeks to identify and characterize all the expressed proteins.
• Proteome- sum total of proteins produced by an organism, more complex than genome
• Gel Electrophoresis- separates proteins using charge size, and unique amino acid combinations.
• Mass spectrometry- identify molecules by masses of their atoms, determine structures of molecules, peak graphs
• Metabolomics- aims to describe the metabolome of a tissue or organism under particular environmental conditions.
• Metabolome- quantitative description of all the metabolites in a cell or organism
• Primary Metabolites- hormones, signaling other molecules; normal processes such as glycolysis
• Secondary Metabolites- unique particular organisms or groups of organisms, special responses to environment (ie defense mechanisms)
Concept 12.2: Prokaryotic Genomes Are relatively Small and Compact
• Haemophilus Influenze- 1st complete genomic sequence of a free living cellular organism, ear infections, meningitis
• Bacterial and archeal gemones- relatively small, compact, genes do not normally contain introns, plasmids.
• Mycoplasma genitalium- enabled scientists to recognize hiw missing genes and effect function
*Some sequences of DNA can move about the genome
• Transposons- move from place to place in a genome and can even move from one piece of DNA to another in the same cell. (plasmid). 1000-2000 by and found in prokaryotic genomes. Useful for Antibiotics and stuffs.
• Metagenomics- coined to describe the approach of analyzing genes without isolating the intact organism. Microbial world uncovered by this
*Will defining the genes required for cellular life lead to artificial life?
• Universal genes- present in all organisms
• Nearly universal genes- present in many organisms
• You can deliberately mutate organisms to discover minimal genomes
• Minimal genome- ancient set DNA sequences common to all cells.
Concept 12.3: Eukaryotic Genomes are both large and complex.
• Eukaryotic genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes- they have more protein coding genes.
• Eukaryotic genes have more regulatory sequences and more regulatory proteins
• Much of eukaryotic dna is noncoding
*Model organisms reveal many...