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Chapter 12 Genomes Study Guide By: Divya Prakriya

Concept 12.1 : There are powerful methods for sequencing genomes and analyzing gene products.

• The goal of sequencing genomes is to identify mutations in DNA and relate them to phenotypes (ie. Understanding genetics)

• Human Genome Project- 13 year project, used chemically modified nucleotides

• Next generation DNA sequencing- uses miniaturization techniques 1st developed for electronics industry, as well as principles of DNA replication and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

• Massivley Parallel Sequencing- In next generation sequencing, when millions of fragments are sequenced at the same time

• Functional genomics- biologists use sequence information to identify functions of various parts of genomes.

• Open reading frames- part of genome; coding regions of genes

• Amino acid sequences of proties- deduced DNA sequences of open reading frames by applying genetic code.

• Regulatory sequences- promoters and terminators for transcription

• RNA genes- including rRNA, tRNA,small nuclear RNA, and microRNA genes.

• Other non coding sequences- classified into various categories, including centrometric and telemetric regions, transposons, repetitive sequences

• Comparative genomics- comparison of a newly sequenced genome with sequences from other organisms

*Phenotypes can be analyzed using proteomics and metabolomics

• Genetic determinism- idea that person’s phenotype is determined solely by their genotype.

• Proteomics- has gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry analyzes proteins. Seeks to identify and characterize all the expressed proteins.

• Proteome- sum total of proteins produced by an organism, more complex than genome

• Gel Electrophoresis- separates proteins using charge size, and unique amino acid combinations.

• Mass spectrometry- identify molecules by masses of their atoms, determine structures of molecules, peak graphs

• Metabolomics- aims to describe the metabolome of a tissue or organism under particular environmental conditions.

• Metabolome- quantitative description of all the metabolites in a cell or organism

• Primary Metabolites- hormones, signaling other molecules; normal processes such as glycolysis

• Secondary Metabolites- unique particular organisms or groups of organisms, special responses to environment (ie defense mechanisms)

Concept 12.2: Prokaryotic Genomes Are relatively Small and Compact

• Haemophilus Influenze- 1st complete genomic sequence of a free living cellular organism, ear infections, meningitis

• Bacterial and archeal gemones- relatively small, compact, genes do not normally contain introns, plasmids.

• Mycoplasma genitalium- enabled scientists to recognize hiw missing genes and effect function

*Some sequences of DNA can move about the genome

• Transposons- move from place to place in a genome and can even move from one piece of DNA to another in the same cell. (plasmid). 1000-2000 by and found in prokaryotic genomes. Useful for Antibiotics and stuffs.

• Metagenomics- coined to describe the approach of analyzing genes without isolating the intact organism. Microbial world uncovered by this

*Will defining the genes required for cellular life lead to artificial life?

• Universal genes- present in all organisms

• Nearly universal genes- present in many organisms

• You can deliberately mutate organisms to discover minimal genomes

• Minimal genome- ancient set DNA sequences common to all cells.

Concept 12.3: Eukaryotic Genomes are both large and complex.

• Eukaryotic genomes are larger than those of prokaryotes- they have more protein coding genes.

• Eukaryotic genes have more regulatory sequences and more regulatory proteins

• Much of eukaryotic dna is noncoding

*Model organisms reveal many...
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