American History: the First World War Begins

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2American History Board Outline Chapter 11
Chapter 11:  The First World War
Textbook:  The Americans--2003
Section 1:  World War I Begins
 
--Jeannette Rankin:  The first woman elected to Congress (U.S. House of Representatives) a. Against WWI
A.  Causes of WWI
--Many Americans wanted to stay out of the war.
--Historians cite four long-term causes of WWI
a. nationalism
b. imperialism
c. militarism
d. formation of a system of alliances
1.  Nationalism--a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation.se a.  led to rivalries among nations
     1. many feared Germany’s growing power in Europe
--Various ethnic groups longed for their nations to become independent. a. looked to larger nations for protection
     1.  Russia protected Slavic peoples
          a. Serbs-Slavic people (Serbia)
--Many ethnic Slavs lived in Austria-Hungary
a. Russia/Austria-Hungary were rivals for influence over Serbia 2.  Imperialism--nations building empires, slowly extending their economic and political control over various peoples of the world (Ch. 10) a. Germany competing with France and Britain for colonies (raw materials). --imperialism:  The policy of extending a nation's authority over other countries by economic, political or military means Q:  How did nationalism and imperialism lead to conflict in Europe? A: Nationalism and imperialism encouraged each European nation to pursue its own interests and compete for power 3.  Militarism:

--increase military spending
--militarism:  the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy --By 1890 the strongest nation on the European continent was Germany --Britain had the strongest navy in the world

--Wilhelm II:  Germany's Kaiser or emperor
a. He wanted Germany to become the strongest militarily in the world, not just army but also navy.      1.  Soon British and German shipyards competed to build the largest battleships and destroyers.      2. This caused France, Italy, Japan, and U.S. to join the naval arms race. 4.  Alliance System:

--alliance:  a formal agreement or union between nations
--Triple Entente:  (Later known as the Allies) France, Britain and Russia --Triple Alliance:  Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy
--Central Powers:  Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire --Ottoman Empire:  an empire mostly Middle Eastern land controlled by Turks. B.  An assassination leads to War--
--Balkans Peninsula: "powder keg of Europe" In the area of Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, Bosnia, etc. -- Ethnic rivalries among the Balkan peoples
--June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand:  heir to the Austrian throne visited the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo. --Gavrilo Princip:  A Serbian nationalist stepped from the crowd and shot the Archduke and his wife Sophie. --Black Hand:  An organization promoting Serbian nationalism --July 28, 1914:  Austria-Hungary declared war against Serbia. a. The alliance system pulled one nation after another into the conflict --August 1, 1914:  Germany declared war on Russia because they supported Austria-Hungary --August 3, 1914:  Germany declared war on France because France was allies with Russia -- Russia supported Serbia so they were against Austria-Hungary --After Germany invaded Belgium, Britain declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary Q:  Why were so many European nations pulled into the conflict? A:The Alliance system pulled one nation after another in the conflict --Crisis in the Balkans:

--After WWI:  Bosnia became a part of Yugoslavia
a. Government of Yugoslavia dominated by Serbs
--1991 Yugoslavia broke apart
a. 1992 Bosnia declared independence
     1.Serbs wanted Bosnia to remain part of Serbian-controlled Yugoslavia      2.Civil war broke out
     3.  This war became notorious for the mass murder and deportation of Bosnian Muslims, a process known as "ethnic cleansing"      a. 1995 the U.S.helped negotiate a cease-fire
--Albanian's later tried to break away which led to more violence a. NATO...
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