American History Study Guide Ch. 15-18

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Chapter 15
Elizabeth Cady Stanton:
One of the most prominent leaders of the 19th century and leading figure of the early woman’s body; social activist/abolitionist Opposed the 14th and 15th amendment because it did nothing to enfranchise women Leader of the National Suffrage Association

Crop-lien/Sharecropping:
Growing of cotton and pledge a part of the crop as collateral Sharecropping: initially arose as a compromise between blacks’ desire for land and planters’ demand for labor discipline System allowed each black family to rent a part of a plantation with the crop divided between worker and owner at the end of the year Guaranteed the planters a stable resident labor force

Black Codes:
Laws passed by the new southern governments that attempted to regulate the lives of the former slaves Granted blacks certain rights: legalized marriage, ownership of property, and limited access to courts Denied them rights to testify against whites, serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote Declared that those who failed to sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested and hired out to white landowners

Thaddeus Stevens:
Radical who represented Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives Wanted to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South; plan proved to be too radical

Hiram Revels:
Mississippi representative for the U.S. Senate during Reconstruction Served as chaplain in the wartime Union army and became the first black senator in American history

Enforcement Acts of 1870-1871:
Outlawed terrorist societies and allowed the president to use the army against them Continued the expansion of national authority during Reconstruction. Defined crimes that aimed to deprive citizens of the civil and political rights as federal offenses rather than violations of state law Klan eventually went out of existence

U.S. v Cruikshank overthrew the Enforcement Acts

U.S. v Cruikshank:
Ruled that the due process and equal protection clauses applied only to state action and not to actions of individuals Case that gutted the Enforcement Acts by throwing out convictions of some of those responsible for the Colfax Massacre of 1873

Election of 1876/Bargain of 1877:
Republican nominee: Rutherford B. Hayes
Democratic nominee: Samuel J. Tilden
Election so close that whoever captured SC, FL, or LA would win Bargain: Congress appointed a 15-member electoral commission Members decided Hayes carried the disputed southern states, and therefore, won

Reconstruction Act of 1867:
Temporarily divided the South into 5 military districts and called for the creation of new state governments, with black men given the right to vote Passed by Congress over Johnson’s veto

Chapter 16
Railroad Strike of 1877:
aka Great Railroad Strike: first national labor walkout
When workers protested a pay cut that paralyzed rail traffic, militia units tried to force them back to work The strike revealed a strong sense of solidarity among workers and close ties b/w the Republican party and the new class of industrialists Aftermath: government constructed armories to ensure troops would be in hand in the event of labor difficulties

Henry George, Progress and Poverty:
Influential writer on social issues during the Gilded Age
He identified the monopolization of land as the cause of social inequality Progress and Poverty: offered a critique of the expansion of poverty amid material abundance Book proposing more optimistic remedies for the unequal distribution of health His solution: “single tax”which would replace other taxes with a levy on increases in the value of real estate; it would be so high that it would prevent speculation in both urban and rural land George rejected the traditional equation of liberty with ownership of land; saw government as a “repressive power”

Sherman Ant-Trust Act:
Banned combinations and practices that restrained free trade; impossible to...
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