American History Midterm Study Guide

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Unit 1
Colonial descriptions:
* Virginia (1607)
* Jamestown was the first permanent English settlement in America. It was founded by John Smith and was populated mostly by English males. * They were granted a charter from the king to establish a colony. They were to have a monopoly over the trade and colonization of that area. * These men that settled in Jamestown were mostly looking for economic opportunities (trade goods, own land, etc.) * John Rolfe helped to temprarily prevent further conflict with the Native Americans. Rolfe also began the cultivation of tobacco (agricuture soon became their main business). His system of cultivation made tobacco the main cash crop of Virginia. The demand for tobacco in England guaranteed Virgina’s economic success. * Because of tobacco becoming a cash crop for the Virginian settlers, workers were needed to harvest the tobacco crop. As a result, indentured servants and African slaves began arriving in Virginia. * The settlers were predominantly Anglican. (mostly loyalists) * Plymouth (1620)

* Plymouth was founded by the Puritan pilgrims who were seeking religious freedom from the Anglican Church of England. * Although trying to avoid the national Church of England, they associated their religion with the colony and its rules. Church and state were not separate entities; they were one in the same. * New Netherland (1624)

* New Netherland, a Dutch colony, was also founded by a joint-stock company. The governer of this colony was Peter Minuit. * The purpose of founding this colony was economic. The Dutch wanted the settlers to compete with the French in the fur trade and to ship raw materials to the mother country. * Holland was a rich country, however. Many people were discouraged to move to the New World. As a result, many of the settlers in this colony weren’t even Dutch. * Multiple languages were spoken and various religions were practiced in this colony. The people in New Netherland were very diverse. * Massachusetts Bay Colony (1629)

* The Massachusetts Bay Colony was established by the Puritans. These Puritans were also searching for an escape from the Anglican Church of England. What they longed for was religious freedom. * Many families and educated people traveled to the Massachussetts Bay Colony. * Because church and state were one in both England and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, these settlers were not loyal to the English crown at all. * They were better off economically than Jamestown. Even though the soil was very rocky and not good for farming, they did a lot of fishing and whaling to boost their economy. No slave labor was required. * Providence, Rhode Island (1636)

* Roger Williams was asked to leave Massachusetts, so he settled in Providence, Rhode Island. * Pennysylvania (1681)
* Pennysylvania was founded by William Penn.
French and Indian War
* It was also called the Seven Years’ War
* In this war, the British and the French fought for the right to expand their empire into the Americas * Colonists and Native Americans fought on both sides, and the war eventually spread to Europe and elsewhere. * The English emerged victorious, and in the end received all of French Canada Ohio River Valley

* Fur and a very strategic location to set up military forts * Right next to the Great Lakes
* Critical area into which the westward- pushing British colonists would inevitably penetrate * For France is was the key to the continent that the French had to retain, particularly if they were going to their Canada holdings with those of the lower Mississippi Valley Proclamation of 1763

* Prohibits colonists from going west of Appalachians
* To prevent wars with natives
* Temporary
* Colonists refused to follow orders and continued expanding west * They saw it as the British trying to...
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