American Government Study Guide.

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Outside lobbying does not include the use of face-to-face exchanges between lobbyists and policymakers. Outside lobbying does include the use of campaign contributions to legislators who favor the interest group, the news media to influence policy makers, targeting group resources on key election races, the print media to influence policy makers. For a bill to pass in either chamber of Congress, it must receive the support of a simple majority of its members. Because of the inherent tension in Congress between the need for strong leadership at the top and the individual congressional member's need to act according to local concerns, power in the Congress is widely dispersed. The second most powerful person in Washington, D.C. (after the president) is often said to be the speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives. According to Theodore Lowi's theory of interest-group liberalism, the effect of groups on policy constitutes a partial and wrongful abdication by government of its authority over policy, results in a system of rule by minorities rather than by a majority, results in an inefficient use of society's resources. Marking up a bill means that a revision occurs in by committees by full and subcommittees in house of reps. And a full committees in senate. This is after hearing. Votes in Congress tend to divide along party lines in the case of major presidential initiatives; the president serves as legislative leader not so much for the whole Congress as for members of his or her party. Ideological groups are distinct from single-issue groups in the number of issues with which they are concerned. By and large, partisanship is the main source of cohesion and division within Congress. During his visit to this country in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville described the United States as "a nation of joiners. Interest groups' efforts to influence policy are aimed at all institutions except the bureaucracy.  Today's Congress differs from the Congress of the...
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