All About Animals

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Sexual selection, Male, Sex
  • Pages : 14 (3934 words )
  • Download(s) : 77
  • Published : December 14, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
A. Evolution and Behavior
1. Study microevolution by viewing domestication and natural selection in the wild. 2. Domestic dogs attack prey differently than their ancestral wolves do due to behavioral selection 3. In domesticating foxes, you are selecting for neotenous traits and a suppressed adrenal gland that made the foxes less aggressive 4. Natural disasters or major ecological changes are good examples of looking at microevolution 5. When studying behavior on a macroevolution scale can be difficult because behavior does not fossilize 6. Oviraptor nest – fossil records that are arranged in a pattern that suggests parental care 7. Dinosaurs head protrusions are used for specific hooting that infers that the species was social and possibly a form of sexual selection 8. Biological Species Concept – groups of interbreeding populations 9. Allopatric vs. Sympatric Speciation

a. Allopatric Speciation – occurs when there is a division in a given species population due to an geographical barrier b. Sympatric speciation – no geographical barrier; could possibly be due to certain individuals that are able to make due with a different resource compared to the rest of the population 10. Adaptive Radiation – seeing multiple speciation events occurring from one given species. Can occur when a catastrophic event occurs and one species is allowed to populate a large area with different available habitats 11. Premating isolation mechanisms

c. Geographical – Female fig wasp – actual separation d. Ecological – different habitats
e. Temporal – different breeding times
f. Behavioral – different courtship behaviors
g. Mechanical – physically cannot mate
12. Postmating isolation mechanisms
h. Hybrid inviability – not viable offspring
i. Hybrid infertility – not fertile offspring
j. Gamete Incompatibility – sperm and egg cannot join 13. Extinction – extreme isolation, extreme specialization, competition with other species B. Nervous System and Behavior
14. Neurons – depolarize to send electrical signals across a cell 15. Ganglion – group of nerve cells outside the CNS
16. Habituation results in a reduced reflex response (NOT LEARNING) 17. Crickets have a reflex response to ultrasounds produced by bats that forces them to contract their abdomen in a way to avoid predators k. They are also able to differentiate between low and high frequencies that are associate with a potential mate or a potential predator respectively 18. Nerve Net – a group of sensory nerve cells participating in a reflex arc with contractile cells 19. Evolutionary trends in the nervous system

l. Centralized and longitudinal nerve cords serve as the major highway for nerve impulses m. Cell impulses only travel in one direction
n. Nerve cells with similar functions group together o. The front end of the longitudinal nerve cord becomes dominant leading to the creation of a brain 20. Brain – most animals have a brain to process nerve stimulus from their surroundings p. Hypothalamus – important structure for behaviors 21. Auditory System – transduces sound waves into nerve impulses q. Outer Ear – corrects the wavelength to optimal hz for the ear drum r. Middle Ear – amplifies the incoming vibrations and moves the oval window to transfer the vibrations into the fluids of the cochlea s. Inner Ear – The cochlea – within are 3 canals: Scala tympani, media, vestibuli 1. The tectorial membrane located below the scala media moves in response to the vibrations of the cochlea and when the membrane displaces the inner hair cells which physically opens K channels which then opens voltage gated Ca+ channels causing neurotransmitter release onto the afferent auditory...
tracking img