Arrival of British
As a background we have to understand that after 1857 Muslims were passing through a very difficult period, a period of degeneration and decay but the roots of this decay can be traced back to the earlier period. In fact, the decay of the Muslims started with the degeneration of the Mughal Empire and in that context Europeans started coming to India. The British being last of them and ultimately they controlled most of India. It was a beginning of the 17th century that in 1608 that the first British ship belonging to East India Company led by Captain Hawkins landed on the western coast of India, Surat was the name of the place. Domination of East India Company
The objective was to start a trade to and from India. When the first batch of the British traders landed as the representatives of East India Company. They had to compete the other Europeans who were there in this region. Then in 1613 Captain Hawkins and others who succeeded him were able to get a formal permission for starting trade from there to Mughal Emperor Jahangir and in this way a group regularly trading here, but ultimately they were able to establish their rule. East India Company ruled India until 1858 and from 1858 the British Crown directly ruled India. Policies of British
The policies of the East India Company were discriminatory towards Muslim and after the British Crown took over India that is when it replaced East India Company in 1858 there was more discrimination towards Muslims, in fact there was hostility because the British thought that the Muslims were mainly responsible for the uprising that aroused against the British colonial authority in 1857.After this incident they adopted a deliberate policy of discrimination towards the Muslims. It was in this context that SS and some of his colleagues came forward to enable the Muslims to deal with the situation. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan (SSAK)
SSAK was born in Delhi in 1817; his family served the Mughals and then the East India Company. When he entered in practical life he also joined the East India Company and was posted 1st at Agra and ultimately transferred to Aligarh from where he started his movement and efforts to change the conditions of the Muslims.SS, s basic argument was that instead of living in the past, instead of thinking about the past glory the Muslims of India should recognized the reality of the time. They should accept the changed conditions and circumstances. The condition was that the British had established themselves in India and the Muslims will have to deal with these people who were the govt now. Focusing on Education
He thought that the Muslims must have modern education; they should learn English and equip themselves with the modern knowledge and techniques to adjust in the changed conditions. What he was talking about was self improvement; Muslims should improve themselves to deal with the current circumstances. A proposal for an internal change amongst the Muslims a change of attitude, a change of disposition that is of what he was talking about. And the important thing from his point of view was that the pattern of relationship that has developed between the Muslims and the British has to be changed in such a manner that Muslims do not suffer and in order to achieve this objective SSAk took a no. of steps adopted a no. of measures to promote understanding between the British and the Muslims. Contribution of SSAK
In this connection we will be discussing 6 broad themes.
•1st we will talk about Background, what was the context in which SSAK and his colleagues were working. •2nd what kind of efforts they made towards the promotion of understanding between the Muslims and the British. What were the methods they adopted for the removal of biases which had developed in both the communities? That is Muslims and the Britishers who had become rulers at that time. •3rd Encouragement to Muslims to learn Western knowledge and English...