Agrarian Reform is very significant for the economy of any country because more than half of the population is employed in the agricultural sector. Agriculture is the main source of livelihood especially for the developing countries. Reforms are important because they protect the rights of the farmers. Definition of Agrarian Reform
Agrarian Reform could be defined as the rectification of the whole system of agriculture. It is normally done by the government where they redistribute the agricultural land among the farmers of the country. The agrarian reform is concerned with the relation between production and distribution of land among the farmers. It also concerns the processing of the raw materials that are produced by farming the land from the respective industries. There can be different types of agrarian reform measures like credit measures, integration of land and training of the farmers. The measures also focus on securing the rights of the farmers, the rights of the peasants working on leased land and aiding them in availing loans from private sectors. The government must also offer support services to the farmers which complement the other measures. They also run campaigns to increase the camaraderie level between the farmers. HISTORY OF AGRARIAN REFORMS
History of agrarian reform dates back to the era of the Romans and Greeks. During this period, there was a lot of unrest between the landless as well as the landowners. Land reform occupied a vital place in the Gracchian agrarian laws. There are instances in history when there was wide unrest among the peasants, who demanded reforms in land. The Peasants' Revolt in 1381 and German Peasants' War in 1524 to 1526 are examples of the same. * History of agrarian reform in Russia
With the Russian Revolution in 20th century, a new dimension was added to the agrarian reform. It followed socialized agriculture. In Socialized agriculture land is collectively owned, partially by state farming but primarily by collective farming under the jurisdiction of the state Once in power, Lenin, assigned all land under state property. This was in the year 1917. Peasants took over several landed property. Voluntary collectivization promoted by Lenin failed miserably. Communist rule prevailed in the Eastern European countries after the Second World War. When Communist rule fell in Eastern part of Europe during the period 1989 to 1990 and after Soviet Union disintegrated in the year 1991, efforts were being made to privatize the agricultural sector.
History of agrarian reform in India
In the densely populated Indian subcontinent, there has been marked unrest among the laborers for several reasons pertaining to land. The primary reasons for the turmoil were: * Security of tenure: This is a term used to denote a kind of legal assurance given to an individual that he would not be removed from office unless there are dire reasons to do so. If security of tenure is not granted to the individual, it would constantly trouble him and make him feel insecure about holding his land. * Redistribution of land among the landless: The fear that there would be unequal distribution of land troubled the agricultural workers. * Rents, which were tyrannical : There were landlords who demanded rent from the tenants or the peasants without considering their financial status. Majority of the landlords exercised their monopoly and dominated the poor agricultural workers. * Interests charged by the Usury: Usury is the financial assistance extended to the peasants in matters related to agriculture. For instance, if an agricultural worker wishes to buy an agricultural equipment or machinery or intends to improve land by application of fertilizers, pesticides or acquires a land, he can do so by borrowing money. There was unrest among the poor farmers because the more powerful creditors asked for abnormal rates of interest. An end to this practice was the need of the hour....
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