African History Study Guide

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IDs (Choice of 10, 4 points each)

Brazzaville Conference
-1944
-the move to Decolonization: the French case (after the fall of France during WWII) Charles de Gaulle recognized need to revise relationship between France and its colonies in Africa (conference arranged to bring political, social, and economic reforms) -created the Brazzaville Declaration (French Empire would remain the same/united, new colonial assemblies, citizens of colonies have equal rights, right to vote + parliamentary representative, reduction in economic exploitation)

Félix Houphouët-Boigny
-1st president of C d’lvoire. He played a leading role in the decolonization of Africa. He is associated with the “Ivorian Miracle” which was economic success in result of cocoa and coffee developments. Also known as “The Sage of Africa”. -1946: he formed the political party Rassemblement Démocratique Africain - the move to Decolonization: the French case

-1st president of Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory coast)
-sought to create unity in West Africa against the French
-advocated a nation-state model for decolonization and working toward independence
Sekou Touré
-1958: ultimatum by Charles de Gaulle (yes or no to stay with France) -the move to Decolonization: the french case
-only Guinea chose independence and left
-Sekou Touré was the important person who first embraced independence (1st president of Guinea) -this lead to 13 French African colonies to become independent in 1960
“Year of Africa”
-1960
-following Guinea’s independence, 13 French colonies became independent -Cote d’Ivoire, Mali, Senegal, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Central African Republic, Chad, Mauritania, Togo, Burkina Faso, Niger, Benin - illustrates the domino effect of decolonization

-pressures of Algeria (the French were focussed on keeping Algeria)

Frantz Fanon

-Black psychiatrist from Martinique (French West Indies)
-The Wretched of the Earth (1961)
-Psychological oppression of colonialism required violent revolution - an intellectual who supported the Algerian struggle for independence -Fanon identified the two challenges of postcolonial independence 1.Maintaining political and economic autonomy/sovereignty from the West 2.Addressing the interests of peasants and workers who formed the basis of anti-colonial nationalism -A famous quote of his: “The acceptance of a nominal sovereignty and the absolute refusal of real independence – such is the typical reaction of colonialist nations with respect to their former colonies.”

Algerian Revolution
-1830s French colonized Algeria violently and would not grant independence -liberation struggle began in 1954 and independence achieved in 1962, Ahmed Ben Bella became president following independence -terrorism tactics made by the French and the FLN(National Liberation Front - Algerian organized socialist political party) with civilian targets

Kwame Nkrumah

-founded the Convention People’s Party in 1949
-Educated in US
-Attended 1945 Pan-African Congress
-1950: Positive Action Campaign - civil disobedience
-Influenced by Marcus Garvey and DuBois
-believed in first political power and then focusing on economic/social problems -Declared himself life president of Ghana in 1964, his government was overthrown in 1966 by a CIA backed coup while he was in China -1st Prime Minister of Ghana before becoming 1st president

Neo-colonialism
-world superpowers’ refusal to accept real independence
-former colonialists grant former colonies everything except economic independence -benefits and targets middle class and intellectuals
-Important to note that the Western powers had by this point become economically dependent on colonies therefore it was difficult not to try and continue to control that asset

Mau Mau Revolt
-1952-1960
-Kenya Kikuyu-based conflict over land in Central Highlands
-best land was reserved for whites (no malaria, great land)
-Kikuyu had very few square miles of land with many...
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