African American Studies Notes

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African American Studies Review
Chapter One
Study Questions
1. Discuss the four basic thrusts of the student movement which led to the founding of Black Studies * The Civil Rights Movement (1960)
* Break down the barriers of legal separation in public accommodations * Achieve equality and justice for Blacks
* Organize Blacks into a self-conscious social force capable of defining, defending and advancing their interests * SNCC emerged as a vanguard group in the CR struggle
* Mobilized, organized and politicized thousands of Black students * Politicized many White students and their leaders through recruiting and training them and bringing them to the South to work in the struggle * The Free Speech Movement (UC Berkeley, 1964)

* White student protest against the rigid, restrictive and unresponsive character of the university * Demand for civil rights on campus
* The Anti-Vietnam War Movement (1965)
* General student protest against the Vietnam war and university complicity in it through its cooperation with the government in recruitment and research and development programs * Launched by new leftists, especially the Students for a Democratic Society * SNCC, Us, the Congress of Racial Equality participated * Based on opposition to:

* The threat the draft posed to Blacks and other males of color not covered by student deferment and especially vulnerable in the South * The government’s war against Third World liberation movements and peoples in general and Vietnam in particular * Fighting an unjust war for a nation depriving Blacks of basic and human rights * The Black Power Movement (1965)

* Led to direct establishment of Black Studies
* The Watts Revolt in Los Angeles
* Ushered in a new dialog about relations of power in society and the university, the pervasive character of racism, and the need for struggle to overturn the establish order and create a more just society * Stressed the importance of self-determination, need for power, relevant education, cultural grounding, studying and recovering African culture * Organizations stressed the need for the university and society to recognize the diverse cultures of the U.S. * Called on students to engage in struggle in the classrooms, on campus in general and in society to improve life of African people and society itself

2. Discuss the emergence of Black Studies at SFSU
* It began in 1966
* Led by black students
* It was the rising tide of the black power movement and reflected its sense of social mission and urgency * Black students at SFSC and other campuses responded to the national activism of the Black Power Movement and the Watts Revolt. * 1966 changed their name to Black Student Union (BSU) to indicate a new identity and direction. * Black students developed a black arts an culture series * BSU demanded a legitimate Black Studies Department funded by the college and controlled by black people brought stiff resistance * BSU also demanded special admissions programs for a given number of black studies but it was also resisted.

3. Identify the major groups involved and the contribution of Dr. Nathan Hare * In 1968, Dr. Hare, an author and former professor, was appointed to be coordinator of Black Studies * He was given the task to formulate an autonomous Black Studies Department * He was fired from Howard University for his activism in support of students and the struggle of “relevant education” * He continued to stress on “relevant education” when he came to SFSU * By April 1968, Hare had completed his proposal and a program for special admission for Black students * The board of trustees continually delayed implementation of the program and it is this which led to the student’s strike * The university was shut down

* Eventually...
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