Sole Proprietorship – owned by one person assume the profit and expenses Service – oriented business – engages in rendering services Merchandising businesses – buy and sell goods for profit Partnership – composed of two or more persons to contribute to a common fund for a profit that will be divided among themselves Money and property include: cash, investment in trading securities, trade and other receivables, prepaid expenses, PPE Industry: service, labor, competence Characteristics of a partnership 1. mutual agency – all of them participate actively, partners act as agents of the partnership, can attend meetings as a representative, signing of contracts 2. limited life – dissolution upon death, insanity, mental incapability, etc. of a partner, easily ended/terminated, change of ownership structure 3. unlimited liability – the liabilities are extended to the personal assets and properties (general partner) ; liability to partnership debts (limited partner) ; all partnerships must have at least one general partner 4. co-ownership of property 5. co-ownership of profit 6. legal entity – business entity principle partners are distinct from the partnership Advantage of a partnership 1. easy to form and dissolve 2. greater amount of capital 3. freedom and flexibility in decision-making 4. better management 5. reliable from the point of view of creditors Disadvantage of a partnership 1. unlimited liability of a partnership 2. lack of business continuity 3. difficulty in transferring ownership interest (approval of all partners) 4. limited amount of capital 5. likelihood of dissension and disagreement Kinds of partnership 1. according to activity a. service – rendering services b. merchandising or trading – buy and sell of goods c. manufacturing – production of goods 2. according to liability a. general – liable pro rata – all partners are general partners. b. limited – one limited partner makes the partnership a limited partnership 3. according to object
a. universal partnership of all present property – contribution of all the property b. universal partnership of profits – assets and profits at the start of the partnership c. particular partnership – specific purpose usually an exercise of profession Kinds of partners 1. according to investment a. capitalist – contributes money or property b. industrial – labor skill or industry c. capitalist industrial – both 2. according to liability a. general – liability extends to personal assets b. limited – capital contribution 3. according to participation a. nominal – in name only b. secret – active in business but unknown to the public c. silent – doesn’t participate actively – cash investments d. managing – manages actively – incentives Articles of co-partnership - agreement in writing among the partners governing the nature and terms of the partnership contract - the framework within which the partners are to operate or conduct partnership business - will help minimize, if not eliminate, the confusion and disputes that may arise between or among the partners - must be registered with SEC (security and exchange commission) Features of Partnership Accounting a. plurality of capital and drawing accounts b. partner’s loans – treated as loan or investment c. partner’s borrowings – treated as withdrawal d. partner’s salaries – salaries to partners e. interest on investment – interest in the asset investment f. division of profit and losses – plurality of partners Partnership formation 1. formation of a partnership for the first time by individuals 2. conversion of a sole proprietorship to a partnership a. 1 sole proprietorship + individual b. 2 sole proprietorships General guidelines: • cash investments are recorded using their face values
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non-cash investment is recorded at current fair market value in case of a non-cash investments with assumption of liability, the capital of the owner is credited at net amount accounts...