Activity and Exercise

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Chapter 38: Activity and Exercise!
Test Bank!

!
MULTIPLE CHOICE!
!

1.!
The coordinated efforts of the musculoskeletal and nervous system maintain balance, posture, and body alignment. Body alignment refers to! !

a.!

A low center of gravity balanced over a wide base of support.! b.!

The result of weight, center of gravity, and balance.!
c.!

The relationship of one body part to another.!
d.!

The force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.!

!
!!
ANS:

C!

Body alignment refers to the relationship of one body part to another body part along a horizontal or vertical line. Body balance occurs when a relatively low center of gravity is balanced over a wide, stable base of support. Coordinated body movement is a result of weight, center of gravity, and balance. Friction is a force that occurs in a direction to oppose movement.!

!!
DIF:

Remember!
REF:! 746-747!
!
OBJ:! Describe the role of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems in the regulation of movement.!
TOP:! Assessment!
MSC:! Teaching/Learning!
!

!
!

2.!

A structural curvature of the spine associated with vertebral rotation is

known as!
a.!

Scoliosis.!
b.!

Osteogenesis.!
c.!

Osteomalacia.!
d.!

Arthritis.!

!
!!
ANS:

A!

Scoliosis is a structural curvature of the spine associated with vertebral rotation. Osteogenesis imperfecta is an inherited disorder that makes bones porous, short, bowed, and deformed. Osteomalacia is an uncommon metabolic disease characterized by inadequate and delayed mineralization, resulting in compact and spongy bone. Arthritis is

an inflammatory joint disease characterized by inflammation or destruction of the synovial membrane and articular cartilage, and by systemic signs of inflammation.!

!!
DIF:

Remember!
REF:! 749! !
OBJ:! Discuss physiological and pathological influences on body alignment and joint mobility.! TOP:! Assessment!
MSC:! Teaching/Learning!
!

!

!
a.!

3.!

Unlike arthritis, joint degeneration!

Occurs only from noninflammatory disease.!
b.!

Occurs only from inflammatory disease.!
c.!

Involves overgrowth of bone at the articular ends.!
d.!

Affects mostly non–weight-bearing joints!

!
!!
ANS:

C!

Joint degeneration, which can occur with inflammatory and noninflammatory disease, is marked by changes in articular cartilage combined with overgrowth of bone at the articular ends. Degenerative changes commonly affect weight-bearing joints.!

!!
DIF:

Understand!
REF:! 749! !
OBJ:! Discuss physiological and pathological influences on body alignment and joint mobility.! TOP:! Assessment!
MSC:! Teaching/Learning!
!

!

The nurse is providing care to a patient who is bedridden. To prevent fatigue, the nurse raises the height of the bed. The nurse understands that balance is maintained by raising the bed to!
!

4.!

a.!

Prevent a shift in the nurse’s base of support.!
b.!

Narrow the base of support.!
c.!

Allow the nurse to bring his or her feet close together.!
d.!

Shift the center of gravity further away from the base of support.!

!
!!
ANS:

A!

Raising the height of the bed when performing a procedure prevents bending too far at the waist and causing a shift in the base of support. Balance is maintained by maintaining proper body alignment and posture through two simple techniques. First, widen the base of support by separating the feet to a comfortable distance. Second, increase balance by bringing the center of gravity closer to the base of support.!

!!
DIF:

Understand!
REF:! 747! !
OBJ:! Discuss physiological and pathological influences on body alignment and joint mobility.! TOP:! Assessment!
MSC:! Teaching/Learning!
!

!
!

5.!

Approximately what percentage of all back pain is associated with manual

lifting tasks?!
a.!

10%!
b.!

25%!
c.!

50%!
d.!

75%!

!
!!
ANS:

C!

Half of all back pain is associated with...
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